PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although research with the organism began in the late nineteenth century, our understanding of the natural history of the infection remains incomplete and is heavily based on expert opinion. Most persons infected with E. histolytica are carriers with the organism colonizing the large intestine. Host defense mechanisms that prevent invasive diseases are poorly understood. A timely review could lead to renewed interest. RECENT FINDINGS: We herein review 2012 and 2013 publications related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, management and potential mechanisms that enable noninvasive E. histolytica colonization without invasion. SUMMARY: There are several publications that advance our knowledge in the first three categories listed above, but studies of mechanisms for noninvasive E. histolytica colonization are glaringly few.