Nosocomial pneumonia: Diagnosis and prevention

C. G. Mayhall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important complication in patients with respiratory failure who undergo endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. VAP cannot be accurately diagnosed by clinical or radiographic criteria or culture of endotracheal aspirates; however, it can be accurately diagnosed by histopathologic examination of lung tissue, rapid cavitation of a pulmonary infiltrate, culture of empyema fluid, percutaneous lung needle aspiration, simultaneous recovery of the same microorganism from cultures of respiratory secretions, and blood and quantitative culture of lower respiratory tract secretions obtained by bronchoscopy. VAP can be prevented by proper decontamination and use of ventilatory support equipment, practice of proper nursing techniques during care of the mechanically ventilated patient, and use of face mask ventilation in selected patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-457
Number of pages31
JournalInfectious disease clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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