Novel recombinant porcine enterovirus G viruses lacking structural proteins are maintained in pig farms in Japan

Ryo Imai, Wen Rongduo, Li Kaixin, Sumiya Borjigin, Hirofumi Matsumura, Tsuneyuki Masuda, Takuji Ozawa, Mami Oba, Shinji Makino, Makoto Nagai, Tetsuya Mizutani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Type 1 recombinant enterovirus G (EV-G), which carries the papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP) gene of torovirus between its 2C/3A regions, and type 2 recombinant EV-G, which carries the torovirus PLCP gene with its flanking regions having non-EV-G sequences in place of the viral structural genes, have been detected in pig farms in several countries. In a previous study, we collected 222 fecal samples from 77 pig farms from 2104 to 2016 and detected one type 2 recombinant EV-G genome by metagenomics sequencing. In this study, we reanalyzed the metagenomic data and detected 11 type 2 recombinant EV-G genomes. In addition, we discovered new type 2 recombinant EV-G genomes of the two strains from two pig farms samples in 2018 and 2019. Thus, we identified the genomes of 13 novel type 2 recombinant EV-Gs isolated from several pig farms in Japan. Type 2 recombinant EV-G has previously been detected only in neonatal piglets. The present findings suggest that type 2 recombinant EV-G replicates in weaning piglets and sows. The detection of type 1 recombinant EV-Gs and type 2 recombinant EV-Gs at 3-year and 2-year intervals, respectively, from the same pig farm suggests that the viruses were persistently infecting or circulating in these farms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)252-265
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Veterinary Medical Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat
  • genomic recombination
  • papain-like cysteine protease
  • porcine enterovirus G
  • porcine toro virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Veterinary


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