Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling

Micah J. Drummond, Hans C. Dreyer, Christopher Fry, Erin L. Glynn, Blake Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids following resistance exercise leads to an even larger increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis compared with the independent effects of nutrients or muscle contraction. Until recently the cellular mechanisms responsible for controlling the rate of muscle protein synthesis in humans were unknown. In this review, we highlight new studies in humans that have clearly shown the mTORC1 signaling pathway is playing an important regulatory role in controlling muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrients and/or muscle contraction. We propose that essential amino acid ingestion shortly following a bout of resistance exercise is beneficial in promoting skeletal muscle growth and may be useful in counteracting muscle wasting in a variety of conditions such as aging, cancer cachexia, physical inactivity, and perhaps during rehabilitation following trauma or surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1374-1384
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume106
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2009

Fingerprint

Muscle Proteins
Essential Amino Acids
Skeletal Muscle
Muscle Contraction
Food
Eating
Cachexia
Leucine
Rehabilitation
mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1
Muscles
Wounds and Injuries
Growth
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Contraction
  • Essential amino acids
  • Leucine
  • Translation initiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. / Drummond, Micah J.; Dreyer, Hans C.; Fry, Christopher; Glynn, Erin L.; Rasmussen, Blake.

In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 106, No. 4, 04.2009, p. 1374-1384.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Drummond, Micah J. ; Dreyer, Hans C. ; Fry, Christopher ; Glynn, Erin L. ; Rasmussen, Blake. / Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009 ; Vol. 106, No. 4. pp. 1374-1384.
@article{6858dd31ee594987860e7722b8e48d5c,
title = "Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling",
abstract = "In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids following resistance exercise leads to an even larger increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis compared with the independent effects of nutrients or muscle contraction. Until recently the cellular mechanisms responsible for controlling the rate of muscle protein synthesis in humans were unknown. In this review, we highlight new studies in humans that have clearly shown the mTORC1 signaling pathway is playing an important regulatory role in controlling muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrients and/or muscle contraction. We propose that essential amino acid ingestion shortly following a bout of resistance exercise is beneficial in promoting skeletal muscle growth and may be useful in counteracting muscle wasting in a variety of conditions such as aging, cancer cachexia, physical inactivity, and perhaps during rehabilitation following trauma or surgery.",
keywords = "Contraction, Essential amino acids, Leucine, Translation initiation",
author = "Drummond, {Micah J.} and Dreyer, {Hans C.} and Christopher Fry and Glynn, {Erin L.} and Blake Rasmussen",
year = "2009",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1152/japplphysiol.91397.2008",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "106",
pages = "1374--1384",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "8750-7587",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nutritional and contractile regulation of human skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling

AU - Drummond, Micah J.

AU - Dreyer, Hans C.

AU - Fry, Christopher

AU - Glynn, Erin L.

AU - Rasmussen, Blake

PY - 2009/4

Y1 - 2009/4

N2 - In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids following resistance exercise leads to an even larger increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis compared with the independent effects of nutrients or muscle contraction. Until recently the cellular mechanisms responsible for controlling the rate of muscle protein synthesis in humans were unknown. In this review, we highlight new studies in humans that have clearly shown the mTORC1 signaling pathway is playing an important regulatory role in controlling muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrients and/or muscle contraction. We propose that essential amino acid ingestion shortly following a bout of resistance exercise is beneficial in promoting skeletal muscle growth and may be useful in counteracting muscle wasting in a variety of conditions such as aging, cancer cachexia, physical inactivity, and perhaps during rehabilitation following trauma or surgery.

AB - In this review we discuss current findings in the human skeletal muscle literature describing the acute influence of nutrients (leucine-enriched essential amino acids in particular) and resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that essential amino acids and an acute bout of resistance exercise independently stimulate human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. It also appears that ingestion of essential amino acids following resistance exercise leads to an even larger increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis compared with the independent effects of nutrients or muscle contraction. Until recently the cellular mechanisms responsible for controlling the rate of muscle protein synthesis in humans were unknown. In this review, we highlight new studies in humans that have clearly shown the mTORC1 signaling pathway is playing an important regulatory role in controlling muscle protein synthesis in response to nutrients and/or muscle contraction. We propose that essential amino acid ingestion shortly following a bout of resistance exercise is beneficial in promoting skeletal muscle growth and may be useful in counteracting muscle wasting in a variety of conditions such as aging, cancer cachexia, physical inactivity, and perhaps during rehabilitation following trauma or surgery.

KW - Contraction

KW - Essential amino acids

KW - Leucine

KW - Translation initiation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=66149097065&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=66149097065&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.91397.2008

DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.91397.2008

M3 - Article

VL - 106

SP - 1374

EP - 1384

JO - Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 8750-7587

IS - 4

ER -