Objective measure of smoking status highlights disparities by sex

Sherrie Khadanga, Blair Yant, Patrick D. Savage, Jason Rengo, Diann E. Gaalema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Current smoking is the strongest predictor of future morbidity and mortality in those with cardiovascular disease, yet clinically, smoking status is usually ascertained through self-report. We objectively measured smoking status, using exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), for 1122 consecutive patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Within those with elevated CO levels (≥4 ppm), females had CO levels almost twice that of males (20.4 vs. 11.6), suggesting higher amounts of smoking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100171
JournalAmerican Heart Journal Plus: Cardiology Research and Practice
StatePublished - May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Secondary prevention
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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