OBJECTIVE. The occlusion time, that is, the interval between device deployment and complete occlusion of the vessel, associated with the use of embolic devices influences the risk of embolic complications caused by small clots that can form over the surface of a device and break away. The purpose of our study was to determine the time for an Amplatzer vascular plug to bring about percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively studied the occlusion times of Amplatzer vascular plugs in the management of 12 PAVMs. We recorded the number, location, type (simple or complex), and diameter and number of feeding arteries of PAVMs; the number and size of devices needed to occlude each PAVM; and the occlusion time for each PAVM. The occlusion time is the time interval from device placement to complete occlusion of the PAVM. Occlusion time was determined by recording the time between acquisition of the first angiographic image after deployment of the device and the angiogram that showed total occlusion of the PAVM. The relevant literature on the subject was reviewed. RESULTS. All PAVMs managed were supplied by a single feeding artery. The average diameter of the feeding arteries was 4.8 mm (range, 3.0-11.2 mm). All PAVMs were occluded by deployment of a single Amplatzer vascular plug. Vascular plug sizes ranged from 4 to 16 mm. The mean occlusion time was 3 minutes 20 seconds (range, 1 minute 49 seconds-5 minutes 16 seconds). There were no immediate complications, including air embolism and thromboembolism. CONCLUSION. The occlusion time determined in our study and the need to place only one Amplatzer vascular plug in each feeding artery to achieve complete occlusion in most cases suggest that the device is safe for management of PAVM with no increased risk of systemic embolization. The use of the Amplatzer vascular plug for PAVM embolization is a relatively recent development. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess recanalization rates, radiation exposure rates, and risk of device migration.
- Amplatzer vascular plug
- Fiber coils
- Occlusion time
- Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging