Old drugs with new tricks: Efficacy of fluoroquinolones to suppress replication of flaviviruses

Stacey L.P. Scroggs, Christy C. Andrade, Ramesh Chinnasamy, Sasha R. Azar, Erin E. Schirtzinger, Erin I. Garcia, Jeffrey B. Arterburn, Kathryn A. Hanley, Shannan L. Rossi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Repurposing FDA-approved compounds could provide the fastest route to alleviate the burden of disease caused by flaviviruses. In this study, three fluoroquinolones, enoxacin, difloxacin and ciprofloxacin, curtailed replication of flaviviruses Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), Langat (LGTV) and Modoc (MODV) in HEK-293 cells at low micromolar concentrations. Time-of-addition assays suggested that enoxacin suppressed ZIKV replication at an intermediate step in the virus life cycle, whereas ciprofloxacin and difloxacin had a wider window of efficacy. A129 mice infected with 1 × 105 plaque-forming units (pfu) ZIKV FSS13025 (n = 20) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n = 11) on day 0 and treated with enoxacin at 10 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg or diluent orally twice daily on days 1–5 did not differ in weight change or virus titer in serum or brain. However, mice treated with enoxacin showed a significant, five-fold decrease in ZIKV titer in testes relative to controls. Mice infected with 1 × 102 pfu ZIKV (n = 13) or PBS (n = 13) on day 0 and treated with 15 mg/kg oral enoxacin or diluent twice daily pre-treatment and days 1–5 post-treatment also did not differ in weight and viral load in the serum, brain, and liver, but mice treated with enoxacin showed a significant, 2.5-fold decrease in ZIKV titer in testes relative to controls. ZIKV can be sexually transmitted, so reduction of titer in the testes by enoxacin should be further investigated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1022
JournalViruses
Volume12
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • A129 mouse
  • Antiviral
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Dengue virus
  • Difloxacin
  • Enoxacin
  • Flavivirus
  • Fluoroquinolone
  • Testis
  • Zika virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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