Objective: Contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging is commonly used for evaluating neurovascular stents and their relationship to the parent artery or vascular pathologies such as arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) in the context of surrounding anatomical structures. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of varying concentrations of contrast medium used in CBCT imaging for optimal visualization of various endovascular devices and anatomical pathologies. Methods: Thirty-five patients with various neurovascular pathologies were included in the study. Contrast-enhanced CBCT images (20 s DR, Siemens syngo DynaCT, Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) were acquired in all cases, with varying dilutions of contrast medium, from 1% to 30%. The injection rate was kept constant at 3 cc/sec with an X-ray delay of two sec, and a total volume of 66 cc of diluted contrast was administered. Results from visual and quantitative analysis were reported. Results: Ten percent dilution of contrast medium resulted in the best image differentiation between flow-diverter devices and the parent artery. Concentrations as low as 2.5% contrast medium also resulted in identifying AVMs in the context of the surrounding brain parenchyma, whereas 20% to 30% dilution provided the best visualization of residual AVMs with prior Onyx embolization and dAVFs in the presence of bony structures. Conclusions: Simultaneous visualization of brain parenchyma, bony structures, devices, and pathological anatomy using contrast-enhanced CBCT imaging is feasible with appropriate doses of iodinated contrast, and should be tailored to the individual case based on the goals of CBCT.
- arteriovenous malformation
- flow diverter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine