Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas

Mathilde Guerbois, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Sasha R. Azar, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Celia M. Alpuche-Aranda, Grace Leal, Iliana R. Garcia-Malo, Esteban E. Diaz-Gonzalez, Mauricio Casas-Martinez, Shannan Rossi, Samanta L. Del Río-Galván, Rosa M. Sanchez-Casas, Christopher M. Roundy, Thomas Wood, Steven Widen, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved. Methods. We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV. Results. Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21%) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3%). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus. ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1349-1356
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume214
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Fingerprint

Aedes
Mexico
Culicidae
Disease Outbreaks
North America
Serum
Viral Antibodies
Guatemala
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Microcephaly
Culex
Zika Virus Infection
Zika Virus
Myalgia
Viral RNA
Arthralgia
Pruritus
Exanthema
Signs and Symptoms
Headache

Keywords

  • arbovirus
  • flavivirus
  • mosquito
  • transmission
  • Zika

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. / Guerbois, Mathilde; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Azar, Sasha R.; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Leal, Grace; Garcia-Malo, Iliana R.; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E.; Casas-Martinez, Mauricio; Rossi, Shannan; Del Río-Galván, Samanta L.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.; Roundy, Christopher M.; Wood, Thomas; Widen, Steven; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott.

In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 214, No. 9, 01.11.2016, p. 1349-1356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Guerbois, M, Fernandez-Salas, I, Azar, SR, Danis-Lozano, R, Alpuche-Aranda, CM, Leal, G, Garcia-Malo, IR, Diaz-Gonzalez, EE, Casas-Martinez, M, Rossi, S, Del Río-Galván, SL, Sanchez-Casas, RM, Roundy, CM, Wood, T, Widen, S, Vasilakis, N & Weaver, S 2016, 'Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas', Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 214, no. 9, pp. 1349-1356. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw302
Guerbois, Mathilde ; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso ; Azar, Sasha R. ; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio ; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M. ; Leal, Grace ; Garcia-Malo, Iliana R. ; Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E. ; Casas-Martinez, Mauricio ; Rossi, Shannan ; Del Río-Galván, Samanta L. ; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M. ; Roundy, Christopher M. ; Wood, Thomas ; Widen, Steven ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Weaver, Scott. / Outbreak of Zika Virus Infection, Chiapas State, Mexico, 2015, and First Confirmed Transmission by Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in the Americas. In: Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2016 ; Vol. 214, No. 9. pp. 1349-1356.
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abstract = "Background. After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barr{\'e} syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved. Methods. We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV. Results. Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21{\%}) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3{\%}). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus. ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America.",
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AU - Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

AU - Azar, Sasha R.

AU - Danis-Lozano, Rogelio

AU - Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.

AU - Leal, Grace

AU - Garcia-Malo, Iliana R.

AU - Diaz-Gonzalez, Esteban E.

AU - Casas-Martinez, Mauricio

AU - Rossi, Shannan

AU - Del Río-Galván, Samanta L.

AU - Sanchez-Casas, Rosa M.

AU - Roundy, Christopher M.

AU - Wood, Thomas

AU - Widen, Steven

AU - Vasilakis, Nikos

AU - Weaver, Scott

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N2 - Background. After decades of obscurity, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread through the Americas since 2015 accompanied by congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Although these epidemics presumably involve transmission by Aedes aegypti, no direct evidence of vector involvement has been reported, prompting speculation that other mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus could be involved. Methods. We detected an outbreak of ZIKV infection in southern Mexico in late 2015. Sera from suspected ZIKV-infected patients were analyzed for viral RNA and antibodies. Mosquitoes were collected in and around patient homes and tested for ZIKV. Results. Of 119 suspected ZIKV-infected patients, 25 (21%) were confirmed by RT-PCR of serum collected 1-8 days after the onset of signs and symptoms including rash, arthralgia, headache, pruritus, myalgia, and fever. Of 796 mosquitoes collected, A. aegypti yielded ZIKV detection by RT-PCR in 15 of 55 pools (27.3%). No ZIKV was detected in C. quinquefasciatus. ZIKV sequences derived from sera and mosquitoes showed a monophyletic relationship suggestive of a point source introduction from Guatemala. Conclusions. These results demonstrate the continued, rapid northward progression of ZIKV into North America with typically mild disease manifestations, and implicate A. aegypti for the first time as a principal vector in North America.

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