Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed by human prostatic tissue and prostate cancer cell lines, and positively influences primary prostate tumor growth in vivo. The human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, which expresses functional PTH/PTHrP receptors, was used as a model to study the effects of PTHrP on prostate cancer cell growth. Addition of PTHrP (1-34), (1-86), and (1-139) increased cell number and [3H]thymidine incorporation; these effects were reversed by anti-PTHrP antiserum. This antiserum also decreased endogenous PC-3 cell growth. Clonal PTHrP-overexpressing PC-3 cell lines also showed enhanced cell growth and [3H]thymidine incorporation and were enriched in the G2+M phase of the cell cycle, suggesting an effect of PTHrP on mitosis. Overexpression of PTHrP with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) deletion partially reversed the growth-stimulatory effects. The growth rate of these cells was midway between that of wild-type PTHrP-overexpressing and control cells, presumably because NLS-mutated PTHrP is still secreted and acts through the cell surface PTH/PTHrP receptor. In contrast to NLS-mutated PTHrP, wild-type protein showed preferential nuclear localization. These results suggest that the proliferative effects of PTHrP in PC-3 cells are mediated via both autocrine/paracrine and intracrine pathways, and that controlling PTHrP production in prostate cancer may be therapeutically beneficial.
- Cell cycle
- Nuclear localization sequence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience