Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk and delayed facture healing; the underlying mechanism, however, remains poorly understood. We systematically investigated skeletal pathology in leptin receptor- deficient diabetic mice on a C57BLKS background (db). Compared with wild type (wt), db mice displayed reduced peak bone mass and age-related trabecular and cortical bone loss. Poor skeletal outcome in db mice contributed high-glucose- and nonesterified fatty acid-induced osteoblast apoptosis that was associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator 1 - A (PGC-1a) downregulation and upregulation of skeletal muscle atrogenes in osteoblasts. Osteoblast depletion of the atrogene muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) protected against gluco- and lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis. Osteoblastspecific PGC-1a upregulation by 6-C-b-d-glucopyranosyl- (2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,39,49-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF), an adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) agonist, as well as metformin in db mice that lacked AdipoR1 expression in muscle but not bone restored osteopenia to wt levels without improving diabetes. Both GTDF and metformin protected against gluco- and lipotoxicity-induced osteoblast apoptosis, and depletion of PGC-1a abolished this protection. Although AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2 depletion abolished protection by GTDF, metformin action was not blocked by AdipoR depletion. We conclude that PGC-1a upregulation in osteoblasts could reverse type 2 diabetes-associated deterioration in skeletal health.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism