Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of Type 2 Myocardial Infarction During Heart Failure Hospitalizations in the United States

Salik Nazir, Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Ishan S. Kamat, Robert W. Ariss, George V. Moukarbel, Juan Carlos Plana Gomez, Savitri Fedson, Ajith Nair, Biykem Bozkurt, Hani Jneid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is increasingly diagnosed in patients with heart failure (HF). A paucity of data exists pertinent to the contemporary prevalence and impact of type 2 MI in patients with HF. We studied the patient profiles and the prognostic impact of type 2 MI on outcomes of HF hospitalizations. Methods: The Nationwide Readmission Database 2018 was queried for patients with HF hospitalizations with and without type 2 MI. Baseline characteristics, inpatient outcomes, and 30-day all-cause readmissions between both cohorts were compared. Results: Of 1,072,674 primary HF hospitalizations included in the study, 28,813 (2.7%) had type 2 MI. Patients with type 2 MI were more likely to be males (56.5% vs 51.6%; P < .001) and had a higher prevalence of hypertension (94% vs 92.2%; P < .001), prior myocardial infarction (17.1% vs 14.9%; P < .001), anemia (9.1% vs 8.1%; P < .001), chronic kidney disease (55.7% vs 49.4%; P < .001), neurological disorders (9.4% vs 7.3%; P < .001), and weight loss (7.3% vs 5.6%; P < .001). Compared with their counterparts without type 2 MI, patients with HF with type 2 MI had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.72), hospital costs (adjusted parameter estimate, $1785; 95% CI, 1388-2182), discharge to nursing facility (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.29), longer length of stay (adjusted parameter estimate, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42-0.64), and rate of 30-day all-cause readmissions (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12). Conclusion: Type 2 MI in patients hospitalized with HF is associated with higher mortality and resource utilization in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1371-1379.e2
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Heart failure
  • Outcomes research
  • Readmissions
  • Type 2 myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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