Patterns of co-occurring birth defects in children with anotia and microtia

Jeremy M. Schraw, Renata H. Benjamin, Charles J. Shumate, Mark A. Canfield, Daryl A. Scott, Scott D. McLean, Hope Northrup, Angela E. Scheuerle, Christian P. Schaaf, Joseph W. Ray, Han Chen, A. J. Agopian, Philip J. Lupo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Many infants with anotia or microtia (A/M) have co-occurring birth defects, although few receive syndromic diagnoses in the perinatal period. Evaluation of co-occurring birth defects in children with A/M could identify patterns indicative of undiagnosed/unrecognized syndromes. We obtained information on co-occurring birth defects among infants with A/M for delivery years 1999–2014 from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. We calculated observed-to-expected ratios (OER) to identify birth defect combinations that occurred more often than expected by chance. We excluded children diagnosed with genetic or chromosomal syndromes from analyses. Birth defects and syndromes/associations diagnosed ≤1 year of age were considered. We identified 1310 infants with non-syndromic A/M, of whom 38% (N = 492) were diagnosed with co-occurring major defects. Top combinations included: hydrocephalus, ventricular septal defect, and spinal anomalies (OER 58.4); microphthalmia and anomalies of the aorta (OER 55.4); and cleft lip with or without cleft palate and rib or sternum anomalies (OER 32.8). Some combinations observed in our study may represent undiagnosed/atypical presentations of known A/M associations or syndromes, or novel syndromes yet to be described in the literature. Careful evaluation of infants with multiple birth defects including A/M is warranted to identify individuals with potential genetic or chromosomal syndromes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)805-812
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • anotia
  • co-occurring defects
  • epidemiology
  • microtia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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