Enteric viruses exploit bacterial components including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PG) to facilitate infection in humans. With origins in the bat enteric system, we wondered if severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) also use bacterial components to modulate infectivity. To test this question, we incubated CoVs with LPS and PG and evaluated infectivity finding no change following LPS treatment. However, PG from B. subtilis reduced infection >10,000-fold while PG from other bacterial species failed to recapitulate this. Treatment with an alcohol solvent transferred inhibitory activity to the wash and mass spectrometry revealed surfactin, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, as the inhibitory compound. This antibiotic had robust dose- and temperature-dependent inhibition of CoV infectivity. Mechanistic studies indicated that surfactin disrupts CoV virion integrity and surfactin treatment of the virus inoculum ablated infection in vivo. Finally, similar cyclic lipopeptides had no effect on CoV infectivity and the inhibitory effect of surfactin extended broadly to enveloped viruses including influenza, Ebola, Zika, Nipah, Chikungunya, Una, Mayaro, Dugbe, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses. Overall, our results indicate that peptidoglycan-associated surfactin has broad virucidal activity and suggest bacteria byproducts may negatively modulate virus infection. Importance In this manuscript, we considered a role for bacteria in shaping coronavirus infection. Taking cues from studies of enteric viruses, we initially investigated how bacterial surface components might improve CoV infection. Instead, we found that peptidoglycan-associated surfactin is a potent viricidal compound that disrupts virion integrity with broad activity against enveloped viruses. Our results indicate that interactions with commensal bacterial may improve or disrupt viral infections highlighting the importance of understanding these microbial interactions and their implications for viral pathogenesis and treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)