Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory

James Orsborne, Sarah De Raedt Banks, Adam Hendy, Salvador A. Gezan, Harparkash Kaur, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Steve W. Lindsay, James G. Logan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. Methods The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2 ), but still produced a KD of >80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Conclusion Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae. aegypti that show permethrin resistance. Additionally, it could continue to provide protection even after the clothing has been worn. Field trials are urgently needed to determine whether clothing can protect against dengue and Zika.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0152805
JournalPLoS One
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Zika virus
Permethrin
Dengue virus
Dengue Virus
Clothing
Aedes
permethrin
clothing
Aedes aegypti
Viruses
Assays
application coverage
Landing
Washing
Skin
High pressure liquid chromatography
Free flight
Insecticides
Culicidae
skin (animal)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Orsborne, J., Banks, S. D. R., Hendy, A., Gezan, S. A., Kaur, H., Wilder-Smith, A., ... Logan, J. G. (2016). Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory. PLoS One, 11(5), [e0152805]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152805

Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory. / Orsborne, James; Banks, Sarah De Raedt; Hendy, Adam; Gezan, Salvador A.; Kaur, Harparkash; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Lindsay, Steve W.; Logan, James G.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 11, No. 5, e0152805, 01.05.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Orsborne, J, Banks, SDR, Hendy, A, Gezan, SA, Kaur, H, Wilder-Smith, A, Lindsay, SW & Logan, JG 2016, 'Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory', PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 5, e0152805. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152805
Orsborne, James ; Banks, Sarah De Raedt ; Hendy, Adam ; Gezan, Salvador A. ; Kaur, Harparkash ; Wilder-Smith, Annelies ; Lindsay, Steve W. ; Logan, James G. / Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory. In: PLoS One. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 5.
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title = "Personal protection of permethrin-treated clothing against aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and zika virus, in the laboratory",
abstract = "Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. Methods The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9{\%} (95{\%} CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5{\%} (95{\%} CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5{\%} (95{\%} CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1{\%} (95{\%} CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3{\%} (95{\%} CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91{\%} (95{\%} CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4{\%} (95{\%} CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3{\%} (95{\%} CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2 ), but still produced a KD of >80{\%} one hour after wearing treated clothing. Conclusion Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae. aegypti that show permethrin resistance. Additionally, it could continue to provide protection even after the clothing has been worn. Field trials are urgently needed to determine whether clothing can protect against dengue and Zika.",
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AU - Orsborne, James

AU - Banks, Sarah De Raedt

AU - Hendy, Adam

AU - Gezan, Salvador A.

AU - Kaur, Harparkash

AU - Wilder-Smith, Annelies

AU - Lindsay, Steve W.

AU - Logan, James G.

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N2 - Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. Methods The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2 ), but still produced a KD of >80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Conclusion Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae. aegypti that show permethrin resistance. Additionally, it could continue to provide protection even after the clothing has been worn. Field trials are urgently needed to determine whether clothing can protect against dengue and Zika.

AB - Background The dengue and Zika viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are most active during day light hours and feed both in and outside of the household. Personal protection technologies such as insecticide-treated clothing could provide individual protection. Here we assessed the efficacy of permethrin-treated clothing on personal protection in the laboratory. Methods The effect of washing on treated clothing, skin coverage and protection against resistant and susceptible Ae. aegypti was assessed using modified WHO arm-in-cage assays. Coverage was further assessed using free-flight room tests to investigate the protective efficacy of unwashed factory-dipped permethrin-treated clothing. Clothing was worn as full coverage (long sleeves and trousers) and partial coverage (short sleeves and shorts). Residual permethrin on the skin and its effect on mosquitoes was measured using modified WHO cone assays and quantified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results In the arm-in-cage assays, unwashed clothing reduced landing by 58.9% (95% CI 49.2-66.9) and biting by 28.5% (95% CI 22.5-34.0), but reduced to 18.5% (95% CI 14.7-22.3) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.5-13.8) respectively after 10 washes. Landing and biting for resistant and susceptible strains was not significantly different (p<0.05). In free-flight room tests, full coverage treated clothing reduced landing by 24.3% (95% CI 17.4-31.7) and biting by 91% (95% CI 82.2-95.9) with partial coverage reducing landing and biting by 26.4% (95% CI 20.3-31.2) and 49.3% (95% CI 42.1-59.1) respectively with coverage type having no significant difference on landing (p<0.05). Residual permethrin was present on the skin in low amounts (0.0041mg/cm2 ), but still produced a KD of >80% one hour after wearing treated clothing. Conclusion Whilst partially covering the body with permethrin-treated clothing provided some protection against biting, wearing treated clothing with long sleeves and trousers provided the highest form of protection. Washing treated clothing dramatically reduced protection provided. Permethrin-treated clothing could provide protection to individuals from Ae. aegypti that show permethrin resistance. Additionally, it could continue to provide protection even after the clothing has been worn. Field trials are urgently needed to determine whether clothing can protect against dengue and Zika.

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