Physicochemical properties of ion pairs of biological macromolecules

Junji Iwahara, Alexandre Esadze, Levani Zandarashvili

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ion pairs (also known as salt bridges) of electrostatically interacting cationic and anionic moieties are important for proteins and nucleic acids to perform their function. Although numerous three-dimensional structures show ion pairs at functionally important sites of biological macromolecules and their complexes, the physicochemical properties of the ion pairs are not well understood. Crystal structures typically show a single state for each ion pair. However, recent studies have revealed the dynamic nature of the ion pairs of the biological macromolecules. Biomolecular ion pairs undergo dynamic transitions between distinct states in which the charged moieties are either in direct contact or separated by water. This dynamic behavior is reasonable in light of the fundamental concepts that were established for small ions over the last century. In this review, we introduce the physicochemical concepts relevant to the ion pairs and provide an overview of the recent advancement in biophysical research on the ion pairs of biological macromolecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA11
Pages (from-to)2435-2463
Number of pages29
JournalBiomolecules
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Macromolecules
Ions
Chemical Phenomena
Nucleic Acids
Salts
Crystal structure
Water
Research

Keywords

  • Dynamics
  • Electrostatic interactions
  • Electrostriction
  • Entropy
  • Free energy
  • Ion pairs
  • Nucleic acids
  • Proteins
  • Salt bridges

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Physicochemical properties of ion pairs of biological macromolecules. / Iwahara, Junji; Esadze, Alexandre; Zandarashvili, Levani.

In: Biomolecules, Vol. 5, No. 4, A11, 2015, p. 2435-2463.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Iwahara, Junji ; Esadze, Alexandre ; Zandarashvili, Levani. / Physicochemical properties of ion pairs of biological macromolecules. In: Biomolecules. 2015 ; Vol. 5, No. 4. pp. 2435-2463.
@article{731056ee942a4e4a97dda24431af6cd3,
title = "Physicochemical properties of ion pairs of biological macromolecules",
abstract = "Ion pairs (also known as salt bridges) of electrostatically interacting cationic and anionic moieties are important for proteins and nucleic acids to perform their function. Although numerous three-dimensional structures show ion pairs at functionally important sites of biological macromolecules and their complexes, the physicochemical properties of the ion pairs are not well understood. Crystal structures typically show a single state for each ion pair. However, recent studies have revealed the dynamic nature of the ion pairs of the biological macromolecules. Biomolecular ion pairs undergo dynamic transitions between distinct states in which the charged moieties are either in direct contact or separated by water. This dynamic behavior is reasonable in light of the fundamental concepts that were established for small ions over the last century. In this review, we introduce the physicochemical concepts relevant to the ion pairs and provide an overview of the recent advancement in biophysical research on the ion pairs of biological macromolecules.",
keywords = "Dynamics, Electrostatic interactions, Electrostriction, Entropy, Free energy, Ion pairs, Nucleic acids, Proteins, Salt bridges",
author = "Junji Iwahara and Alexandre Esadze and Levani Zandarashvili",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.3390/biom5042435",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
pages = "2435--2463",
journal = "Biomolecules",
issn = "2218-273X",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Physicochemical properties of ion pairs of biological macromolecules

AU - Iwahara, Junji

AU - Esadze, Alexandre

AU - Zandarashvili, Levani

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Ion pairs (also known as salt bridges) of electrostatically interacting cationic and anionic moieties are important for proteins and nucleic acids to perform their function. Although numerous three-dimensional structures show ion pairs at functionally important sites of biological macromolecules and their complexes, the physicochemical properties of the ion pairs are not well understood. Crystal structures typically show a single state for each ion pair. However, recent studies have revealed the dynamic nature of the ion pairs of the biological macromolecules. Biomolecular ion pairs undergo dynamic transitions between distinct states in which the charged moieties are either in direct contact or separated by water. This dynamic behavior is reasonable in light of the fundamental concepts that were established for small ions over the last century. In this review, we introduce the physicochemical concepts relevant to the ion pairs and provide an overview of the recent advancement in biophysical research on the ion pairs of biological macromolecules.

AB - Ion pairs (also known as salt bridges) of electrostatically interacting cationic and anionic moieties are important for proteins and nucleic acids to perform their function. Although numerous three-dimensional structures show ion pairs at functionally important sites of biological macromolecules and their complexes, the physicochemical properties of the ion pairs are not well understood. Crystal structures typically show a single state for each ion pair. However, recent studies have revealed the dynamic nature of the ion pairs of the biological macromolecules. Biomolecular ion pairs undergo dynamic transitions between distinct states in which the charged moieties are either in direct contact or separated by water. This dynamic behavior is reasonable in light of the fundamental concepts that were established for small ions over the last century. In this review, we introduce the physicochemical concepts relevant to the ion pairs and provide an overview of the recent advancement in biophysical research on the ion pairs of biological macromolecules.

KW - Dynamics

KW - Electrostatic interactions

KW - Electrostriction

KW - Entropy

KW - Free energy

KW - Ion pairs

KW - Nucleic acids

KW - Proteins

KW - Salt bridges

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85012045743&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85012045743&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/biom5042435

DO - 10.3390/biom5042435

M3 - Review article

C2 - 26437440

AN - SCOPUS:85012045743

VL - 5

SP - 2435

EP - 2463

JO - Biomolecules

JF - Biomolecules

SN - 2218-273X

IS - 4

M1 - A11

ER -