Patients with acute and chronic renal failure are vulnerable to a wide variety of acid-base and electrolyte disturbances. The variety is related not only to predictable disturbances that arise as a consequence of impaired urinary excretion, but also to associated factors, such as intercurrent disease processes, chronic medications, and renal replacement therapy. This article emphasizes the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of common problems, including metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine