Plasma cytokine analysis in patients with advanced extremity melanoma undergoing isolated limb infusion

Gina Shetty, Georgia M. Beasley, Sara Sparks, Michael Barfield, Melanie Masoud, Paul J. Mosca, Scott K. Pruitt, April K.S. Salama, Cliburn Chan, Douglas S. Tyler, Kent J. Weinhold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Preprocedure clinical and pathologic factors have failed to consistently differentiate complete response (CR) from progressive disease (PD) in patients after isolated limb infusion (ILI) with melphalan for unresectable in-transit extremity melanoma. Methods: Multiplex immunobead assay technology (Milliplex MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Magnetic Bead Panel, Millipore Corp., Billerica, MA; and Magpix analytical test instrument, Luminex Corp., Austin, TX) was performed on pre-ILI plasma to determine concentrations of selected cytokines (MIP-1α, IL-1Rα, IP-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-17, EGF, IL-12p40, VEGF, GM-CSF, and MIP-1β) on a subset of patients (n = 180) who experienced CR (n = 23) or PD (n = 24) after ILI. Plasma from normal donors (n = 12) was also evaluated. Results: Of 180 ILIs performed, 28 % (95 % confidence interval 22-35, n = 50) experienced a CR, 14 % (n = 25) experienced a partial response, 11 % (n = 21) had stable disease, 34 % (n = 61) had PD, and 13 % (n = 23) were not evaluable for response. Tumor characteristics and pharmacokinetics appeared similar between CR (n = 23) and PD (n = 24) patients who underwent cytokine analysis. Although there were no differences in cytokine levels between CR and PD patients, there were differences between the melanoma patients and controls. MIP-1α, IL-1Rα, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-17, EGF, IL-12p40, VEGF, GM-CSF, and MIP-1β were significantly higher in normal controls compared to melanoma patients, while IP-10 was lower (p < 0.001) in controls compared to melanoma patients. Conclusions: Patients with unresectable in-transit melanoma appear to have markedly decreased levels of immune activating cytokines compared to normal healthy controls. This further supports a potential role for immune-targeted therapies and immune monitoring in patients with regionally advanced melanoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1128-1135
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of surgical oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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