The activation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. We found increased amounts of poly(ADP) ribosylated proteins in diabetic kidneys of Leprdb/db (BKsJ) mice, suggesting increased PARP activity. Therefore, we examined the effects of two structurally unrelated PARP inhibitors (INO-1001 and PJ-34) on the development of diabetic nephropathy of Leprdb/db (BKsJ) mice, an experimental model of type 2 diabetes. INO-1001 and PJ-34 were administered in the drinking water to Lepr db/db mice. Both INO-1001 and PJ-34 treatment ameliorated diabetes-induced albumin excretion and mesangial expansion, which are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy. PARP inhibitors decreased diabetes-induced podocyte depletion in vivo and blocked hyperglycemia-induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro. High glucose treatment of podocytes in vitro led to an early increase of poly(ADP) ribosylated modified protein levels. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation appears to be a downstream target of hyperglycemia-induced PARP activation, as PARP inhibitors blocked the hyperglycemia-induced ROS generation in podocytes. INO-1001 and PJ-34 also normalized the hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial depolarization. PARP blockade by INO-1001 and PJ-34 prevented hyperglycemia-induced nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation of podocytes, and it was made evident by the inhibitor of κBα phosphorylation and NFκB p50 nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia-induced PARP activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathy associated with type 2 diabetes and could serve as a novel therapeutic target.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism