Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy

Paul T. Reidy, Michael S. Borack, Melissa M. Markofski, Jared M. Dickinson, Christopher Fry, Rachel Deer, Elena Volpi, Blake Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover. Methods: Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60–80% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET. Results: RET increased strength (12–40%), LBM (~5%), MT (~15%) and myofiber CSA (~20%) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24% while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21%, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness. Conclusion: Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)853-866
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume117
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Fingerprint

Resistance Training
Muscle Proteins
Hypertrophy
Exercise
Muscles
Quadriceps Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Proteins
Muscle Strength
Phenylalanine
Biopsy
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • Growth
  • mTORC1
  • Ribosome biogenesis
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Strength training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy. / Reidy, Paul T.; Borack, Michael S.; Markofski, Melissa M.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Fry, Christopher; Deer, Rachel; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 117, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 853-866.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reidy, Paul T. ; Borack, Michael S. ; Markofski, Melissa M. ; Dickinson, Jared M. ; Fry, Christopher ; Deer, Rachel ; Volpi, Elena ; Rasmussen, Blake. / Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover affects resistance training hypertrophy. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2017 ; Vol. 117, No. 5. pp. 853-866.
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abstract = "Purpose: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover. Methods: Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60–80{\%} 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET. Results: RET increased strength (12–40{\%}), LBM (~5{\%}), MT (~15{\%}) and myofiber CSA (~20{\%}) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24{\%} while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21{\%}, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness. Conclusion: Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.",
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AU - Reidy, Paul T.

AU - Borack, Michael S.

AU - Markofski, Melissa M.

AU - Dickinson, Jared M.

AU - Fry, Christopher

AU - Deer, Rachel

AU - Volpi, Elena

AU - Rasmussen, Blake

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N2 - Purpose: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover. Methods: Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60–80% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET. Results: RET increased strength (12–40%), LBM (~5%), MT (~15%) and myofiber CSA (~20%) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24% while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21%, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness. Conclusion: Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.

AB - Purpose: Acute bouts of resistance exercise and subsequent training alters protein turnover in skeletal muscle. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in basal post-absorptive protein turnover and its impact on muscle hypertrophy following resistance exercise training are unknown. Our goal was to determine whether post-absorptive muscle protein turnover following 12 weeks of resistance exercise training (RET) plays a role in muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we were interested in determining potential molecular mechanisms responsible for altering post-training muscle protein turnover. Methods: Healthy young men (n = 31) participated in supervised whole body progressive RET at 60–80% 1 repetition maximum (1-RM), 3 days/week for 3 months. Pre- and post-training vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and blood samples taken during an infusion of 13C6 and 15N phenylalanine and were used to assess skeletal muscle protein turnover in the post-absorptive state. Lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength (determined by dynamometry), vastus lateralis muscle thickness (MT), myofiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA), and mRNA were assessed pre- and post-RET. Results: RET increased strength (12–40%), LBM (~5%), MT (~15%) and myofiber CSA (~20%) (p < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased 24% while muscle protein breakdown (MPB) decreased 21%, respectively. These changes in protein turnover resulted in an improved net muscle protein balance in the basal state following RET. Further, the change in basal MPS is positively associated (r = 0.555, p = 0.003) with the change in muscle thickness. Conclusion: Post-absorptive muscle protein turnover is associated with muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise training.

KW - Growth

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KW - Strength training

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