Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C4-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Retene (1-Methyl-7-isopropyl-phenanthrene) Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

Meng Huang, Clementina Mesaros, Linda C. Hackfeld, Richard P. Hodge, Tianzhu Zang, Ian A. Blair, Trevor M. Penning

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Exposure to petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C4-Phenanthrenes are representative PPAHs present in the crude oil and could contaminate the seafood. We describe the metabolism of a C4-phenanthrene regioisomer retene (1-methyl-7-isopropyl-phenanthrene) in human HepG2 cells as a model for metabolism in human hepatocytes. Retene because of its sites of alkylation cannot be metabolized to a diol-epoxide. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-Monosulfonated-retene-catechols were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway of PAH activation catalyzed by aldo-keto reductases. We also found evidence for the formation of bis-ortho-quinones where the two dicarbonyl groups were present on different rings of retene. The identification of O-monosulfonated-retene-catechol and O-bismethyl-O-monoglucuronosyl-retene-bis-catechol supports metabolic activation of retene by P450 and aldo-keto reductase isozymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of redox cycling by catechol-O-methyltransferase, uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase, and sulfotransferase isozymes. We propose that catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to retene resulting from oil spills.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)1093-1101
    Number of pages9
    JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
    Volume30
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 17 2017

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Toxicology

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