Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from Punjab province of Pakistan

Muhammad Furqan Shahid, Tahir Yaqub, Muzaffar Ali, Aziz Ul-Rahman, Dennis A. Bente

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8 Scopus citations


Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease of human that caused by CCHF virus. To study the epidemiological distribution of CCHFV, 2183 tick samples were collected from sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo of different livestock farms of ten districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. Detection of CCHFV was done using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after proper identification of tick samples. The partial S-segment of CCHFV from ELISA positive tick samples was amplified by PCR and sequenced to determine the genotype of CCHFV. Out of2183 collected tick samples, 1913 ticks belonged to 5 species of genus Hyalomma as H. antolicum (48%), H. marginatum (30.2%), H. rufipes (10.82%), H. impressum (5.43%) and H. dromedarii (5.27%). While 270 ticks belonged to 3 species of genus Rhipicephalus as R. microplus (44.8%), R. sanguineus (32.22%) and R. turanicus (24.8%). The overall antigenic prevalence of CCHFV was found to be 12.13% in collected tick samples and 21 tick pools were sequenced for partial S-segment of CCHFV. All of the 21 tick pools were clustered in genotype IV (Asia-1). The highest prevalence of CCHFV was found in district Chakwal (24.13%) followed by Mianwali (23.68%), Rawalpindi (23.07%), Attock (20.0%), Rajanpur (10.52%) and Lahore (8.33%). In positive tick pools, the highest prevalence of CCHFV antigen was found in H. antolicum (39.6%) followed by H. marginatum (30.18%), H. rufipes (13.2%), H. impressum (3.77%), H. dromedarii (1.88%), R. microplus (5.66%) and R. sanguineus (5.66%). The current study confirms the presence of CCHFV in the ticks population of Punjab. The CCHF virus present in Punjab belongs to Asia-1 genotype. It is important to control the tick infestation of the animals present in these areas. So that the transmission cycle of CCHF can be inhibited.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105892
JournalActa Tropica
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever
  • Geographic distribution
  • Prevalence
  • Punjab
  • Ticks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Parasitology


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