Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus by age and race/ethnicity among males

Abbey B. Berenson, Jacqueline M. Hirth, Mihyun Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Genital and oral cancers are often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types that can be prevented through HPV vaccination. Since HPV is sexually transmitted, knowledge of penile prevalence of vaccine-type HPV among US males can help predict potential disparities in these cancers. This study examines penile HPV prevalence by age and race/ethnicity among males. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of publicly available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Using data from penile swab samples collected from males between 2013 and 2016, the prevalence of 4vHPV and 9vHPV vaccine types was examined across age groups and by race/ethnicity. Logistic regression models adjusting for demographics, sexual behavior, and circumcision were examined to determine whether associations remained after accounting for confounders. Results: Among 2548 males evaluated, HPV infection prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with Black males exhibiting a higher prevalence of HPV. Examination of 4vHPV type prevalence by age group showed that 18-26-year-old males had a lower prevalence than older age groups. After controlling for confounders, 4vHPV prevalence was only significantly elevated among 27-34-year-old males, those who were single, and males with ≥3 lifetime sex partners. In adjusted models, 9vHPV type prevalence remained elevated among Black males compared with White males. Conclusions: Variations in 9vHPV type prevalence between Black and White individuals indicate future disparities in HPV-related genital cancers may continue in the United States during the next decade. Revaccinating certain populations with the 9vHPV vaccine may be appropriate to help mitigate this.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1625-1633
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Cancer prevention
  • Male HPV prevalence
  • Penile human papillomavirus
  • Racial disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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