Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was considered to be transmitted by Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus, the principal animal hosts of Hantaan virus and Seoul virus, respectively. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of HFRS incidence with capture rate and hantavirus infection rate of rodent species in Qingdao City, China. We collected HFRS patients' information and captured field and residential rodents in Qingdao City, China from 2010 to 2014. The correlations of HFRS incidence to rodent capture rate and hantavirus infection rate of rodents were analyzed statistically. The main findings of this study are that the high HFRS incidence (19.3/100,000) is correlated to the capture rate of field Mus musculus (p = 0.011, r = 0.037); but surprisingly it did not correlated to the capture rate of the principal rodent hosts Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus and the hantavirus infection rate of these rodent species in the field or residential area. These novel findings suggest that Mus musculus, a nontraditional animal host of hantavirus may play an important role in hantavirus transmission in Qingdao City.
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