To determine the prevalence of antibodies to viral diseases known or suspected to be present in Pakistan, we studied 570 sera from three groups of adults; two of the groups were involved in outbreaks of hepatitis, and the third included men admitted to a hospital for evaluation of febrile illnesses. Immunoglobulin G antileptospiral antibody was found in 1 to 6% of the subjects, with the highest rate in enlisted military personnel hospitalized for febrile illness. One man in the group with febrile illness had significantly elevated immunoglobulin M antileptospiral antibody titers. However, in a group of recruits experiencing suspected non-A, non-B hepatitis, 19 (11%) of 173 had a 4-fold rise in immunoglobulin M antibody to leptospirosis. Antibody to sand fly fever viruses was found in 27 to 70%. Antibody to West Nile virus was present in 33 to 41% of subjects. Antibody reactive with Japanese encephalitis virus was present in 25%, but plaque reduction neutralization tests suggested this to be cross-reaction with West Nile virus. All 212 specimens tested for antibody to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Hantaan viruses were negative. This study indicates that diseases known to be prevalent in other areas of southwest Asia and the Middle East are also prevalent in northern Pakistan and may impact on those traveling or working in this area.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health