Prevention of graft-versus-host disease by intrathymic injection of recipient-type splenocytes into donor

Smita Vaidya, Chu Chi Wang, Craig Roorda, Adrian Billings, Srinivas Rajaraman, Jay C. Fish

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Abstract

We have prevented graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by tolerizing graft donors to host antigens by intrathymic injection of recipient-type splenocytes into donors. A unidirectional GVHD model was used in which intravenous injection of 3-4 x 108 Lewis rat (donor) lymphocytes into (Lewis x Brown Norway)F1 rats (recipients) causes lethal GVHD. The donor animals were divided into five treatment groups. The group 1 donor animals received no treatment. The group 2 donors received a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml of antilymphocyte antiserum (ALS). The group 3 donors received an intrathymic injection of 50 x 106 host splenocytes. The group 4 donors received both ALS (intraperitoneally) and intrathymic allograft. The group 5 donors received both ALS (intraperitoneally) and intravenous allograft. Two weeks after these treatments, 3-4 x 108 lymphocytes from each of these donors were injected (intravenously) into the recipients. The clinical signs of GVHD, as measured by profound weight loss, hair loss, inflammation of foot pads and ears, and profound splenomegaly, were evident in recipients of groups 1, 2, and 3 between days 9 and 10 and in the recipients (two of four) of group 5 on day 17. No GVHD was observed by histopathology in all 14 hosts that received lymphocyte injection from the group 4 donor animals (up to 300 days). These results demonstrate that GVHD can be eliminated by tolerizing donors toward host by intrathymic injection of the recipient-type lymphocytes into the donor. A single injection of ALS is necessary to possibly eliminate antihost response from the donor for the tolerance induction. The thymic route appears to be superior to the intravenous route for tolerance induction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1366-1368
Number of pages3
JournalTransplantation
Volume62
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 1996

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation

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