Statins and antiplatelet agents are currently used as therapeutic agents for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Statins limit myocardial infarct size by activating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and the downstream effectors inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Inhibition of PI3K, adenosine receptors, eNOS, iNOS, or COX-2 abrogates the protective effects of statins. At >5 mg/kg, aspirin attenuates the myocardial infarct-size-limiting effect of statins. In contrast, the combination of low-dose atoravastatin with either the phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor cilostazol or the adenosine reuptake inhibitor dipyridamole synergistically limits infarct size. Low-dose aspirin with dipyridamole started during ischemia augmented the infarct-size-limiting effects of simvastatin. In contrast, high-dose aspirin blocked the protective effect of simvastatin. The combination of dipyridamole with low-dose aspirin and simvastatin resulted in the smallest infarct size. According to themost current data available, we believe that antiplatelet regimens may require modification for patients who are receiving statins.
- Antiplatelet agents
- Infarct size
- Ischemia-reperfusion injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- History and Philosophy of Science