Protective Effects of Melatonin on Retinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy

Tingting Jiang, Qing Chang, Jiyang Cai, Jiawen Fan, Xiaozhe Zhang, Gezhi Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathogenic factors contributing to the etiology of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Melatonin is an endogenous hormone that exhibits a variety of biological effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. The goals of this study were to determine whether melatonin could ameliorate retinal injury and to explore the potential mechanisms. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Melatonin (10 mg kg-1 daily, i.p.) was administered from the induction of diabetes and continued for up to 12 weeks, after which the animals were sacrificed and retinal samples were collected. The retina of diabetic rats showed depletion of glutathione and downregulation of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). Melatonin significantly upregulated GCL by retaining Nrf2 in the nucleus and stimulating Akt phosphorylation. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and proteins, including interleukin 1β, TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), was inhibited by melatonin through the NF-B pathway. At 12 weeks, melatonin prevented the significant decrease in the ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes under the diabetic condition. Our results suggest potent protective functions of melatonin in diabetic retinopathy. In addition to being a direct antioxidant, melatonin can exert receptor-mediated signaling effects to attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress of the retina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3528274
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume2016
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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Oxidative stress
Diabetic Retinopathy
Melatonin
Oxidative Stress
Inflammation
Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase
Medical problems
Retina
Rats
Antioxidants
Phosphorylation
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Intraperitoneal Injections
Interleukin-1
Glutathione
Sprague Dawley Rats
Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Down-Regulation
Hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Aging
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Protective Effects of Melatonin on Retinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. / Jiang, Tingting; Chang, Qing; Cai, Jiyang; Fan, Jiawen; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Xu, Gezhi.

In: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Vol. 2016, 3528274, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jiang, Tingting ; Chang, Qing ; Cai, Jiyang ; Fan, Jiawen ; Zhang, Xiaozhe ; Xu, Gezhi. / Protective Effects of Melatonin on Retinal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy. In: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2016 ; Vol. 2016.
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