Protein tyrosine nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-treated thymocytes

Implication for cytotoxicity

Péter Bai, Csaba Hegedus, Katalin Erdélyi, Éva Szabó, Edina Bakondi, Szabolcs Gergely, Csaba Szabo, László Virág

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a DNA alkylating agent. DNA alkylation by MNNG is known to trigger accelerated poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. Various nitroso compounds release nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we set out to investigate whether MNNG functions as NO donor and whether MNNG-derived NO or secondary NO metabolites such as peroxynitrite contribute to MNNG-induced cytotoxicity. MNNG in aqueous solutions resulted in time- and concentration-dependent NO release and nitrite/nitrate formation. Moreover, various proteins in MNNG-treated thymocytes were found to be nitrated, indicating that MNNG-derived NO may combine with cellular superoxide to form peroxynitrite, a nitrating agent. MNNG also caused DNA breakage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and cytotoxicity in thymocytes. MNNG-induced DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) and thymocyte death (measured by propidium iodide uptake) was prevented by the PARP inhibitor PJ-34 and by glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The cytoprotection provided by PJ-34 against necrotic parameters was paralleled by increased outputs in apoptotic parameters (caspase activity, DNA laddering) indicating that PARP activation diverts apoptotic death toward necrosis. As MNNG-induced cytotoxicity showed many similarities to peroxynitrite-induced cell death, we tested whether peroxynitrite was responsible for at least part of the cytotoxicity induced by MNNG. Cell-permeable enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), the NO scavenger cPTIO or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FP15 failed to inhibit MNNG-induced DNA breakage and cytotoxicity. In conclusion, MNNG induces tyrosine nitration in thymocytes. Furthermore, MNNG damages DNA by a radical mechanism that does not involve NO or peroxynitrite.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-213
Number of pages11
JournalToxicology Letters
Volume170
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2007
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Nitrosoguanidines
Nitration
Methylnitronitrosoguanidine
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
Thymocytes
Cytotoxicity
Tyrosine
Chemical activation
Peroxynitrous Acid
Proteins
Nitric Oxide
DNA
DNA Damage
Nitroso Compounds
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
Comet Assay
Cytoprotection
Nitric Oxide Donors
Propidium
Alkylating Agents

Keywords

  • 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine
  • Apoptosis
  • Necrosis
  • Nitric oxide
  • Peroxynitrite
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Protein tyrosine nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-treated thymocytes : Implication for cytotoxicity. / Bai, Péter; Hegedus, Csaba; Erdélyi, Katalin; Szabó, Éva; Bakondi, Edina; Gergely, Szabolcs; Szabo, Csaba; Virág, László.

In: Toxicology Letters, Vol. 170, No. 3, 15.05.2007, p. 203-213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bai, Péter ; Hegedus, Csaba ; Erdélyi, Katalin ; Szabó, Éva ; Bakondi, Edina ; Gergely, Szabolcs ; Szabo, Csaba ; Virág, László. / Protein tyrosine nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-treated thymocytes : Implication for cytotoxicity. In: Toxicology Letters. 2007 ; Vol. 170, No. 3. pp. 203-213.
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abstract = "1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a DNA alkylating agent. DNA alkylation by MNNG is known to trigger accelerated poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. Various nitroso compounds release nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we set out to investigate whether MNNG functions as NO donor and whether MNNG-derived NO or secondary NO metabolites such as peroxynitrite contribute to MNNG-induced cytotoxicity. MNNG in aqueous solutions resulted in time- and concentration-dependent NO release and nitrite/nitrate formation. Moreover, various proteins in MNNG-treated thymocytes were found to be nitrated, indicating that MNNG-derived NO may combine with cellular superoxide to form peroxynitrite, a nitrating agent. MNNG also caused DNA breakage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and cytotoxicity in thymocytes. MNNG-induced DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) and thymocyte death (measured by propidium iodide uptake) was prevented by the PARP inhibitor PJ-34 and by glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The cytoprotection provided by PJ-34 against necrotic parameters was paralleled by increased outputs in apoptotic parameters (caspase activity, DNA laddering) indicating that PARP activation diverts apoptotic death toward necrosis. As MNNG-induced cytotoxicity showed many similarities to peroxynitrite-induced cell death, we tested whether peroxynitrite was responsible for at least part of the cytotoxicity induced by MNNG. Cell-permeable enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), the NO scavenger cPTIO or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FP15 failed to inhibit MNNG-induced DNA breakage and cytotoxicity. In conclusion, MNNG induces tyrosine nitration in thymocytes. Furthermore, MNNG damages DNA by a radical mechanism that does not involve NO or peroxynitrite.",
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AU - Hegedus, Csaba

AU - Erdélyi, Katalin

AU - Szabó, Éva

AU - Bakondi, Edina

AU - Gergely, Szabolcs

AU - Szabo, Csaba

AU - Virág, László

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N2 - 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a DNA alkylating agent. DNA alkylation by MNNG is known to trigger accelerated poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. Various nitroso compounds release nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we set out to investigate whether MNNG functions as NO donor and whether MNNG-derived NO or secondary NO metabolites such as peroxynitrite contribute to MNNG-induced cytotoxicity. MNNG in aqueous solutions resulted in time- and concentration-dependent NO release and nitrite/nitrate formation. Moreover, various proteins in MNNG-treated thymocytes were found to be nitrated, indicating that MNNG-derived NO may combine with cellular superoxide to form peroxynitrite, a nitrating agent. MNNG also caused DNA breakage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and cytotoxicity in thymocytes. MNNG-induced DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) and thymocyte death (measured by propidium iodide uptake) was prevented by the PARP inhibitor PJ-34 and by glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The cytoprotection provided by PJ-34 against necrotic parameters was paralleled by increased outputs in apoptotic parameters (caspase activity, DNA laddering) indicating that PARP activation diverts apoptotic death toward necrosis. As MNNG-induced cytotoxicity showed many similarities to peroxynitrite-induced cell death, we tested whether peroxynitrite was responsible for at least part of the cytotoxicity induced by MNNG. Cell-permeable enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), the NO scavenger cPTIO or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FP15 failed to inhibit MNNG-induced DNA breakage and cytotoxicity. In conclusion, MNNG induces tyrosine nitration in thymocytes. Furthermore, MNNG damages DNA by a radical mechanism that does not involve NO or peroxynitrite.

AB - 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) is a DNA alkylating agent. DNA alkylation by MNNG is known to trigger accelerated poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism. Various nitroso compounds release nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, we set out to investigate whether MNNG functions as NO donor and whether MNNG-derived NO or secondary NO metabolites such as peroxynitrite contribute to MNNG-induced cytotoxicity. MNNG in aqueous solutions resulted in time- and concentration-dependent NO release and nitrite/nitrate formation. Moreover, various proteins in MNNG-treated thymocytes were found to be nitrated, indicating that MNNG-derived NO may combine with cellular superoxide to form peroxynitrite, a nitrating agent. MNNG also caused DNA breakage and increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and cytotoxicity in thymocytes. MNNG-induced DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) and thymocyte death (measured by propidium iodide uptake) was prevented by the PARP inhibitor PJ-34 and by glutathione (GSH) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The cytoprotection provided by PJ-34 against necrotic parameters was paralleled by increased outputs in apoptotic parameters (caspase activity, DNA laddering) indicating that PARP activation diverts apoptotic death toward necrosis. As MNNG-induced cytotoxicity showed many similarities to peroxynitrite-induced cell death, we tested whether peroxynitrite was responsible for at least part of the cytotoxicity induced by MNNG. Cell-permeable enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), the NO scavenger cPTIO or the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FP15 failed to inhibit MNNG-induced DNA breakage and cytotoxicity. In conclusion, MNNG induces tyrosine nitration in thymocytes. Furthermore, MNNG damages DNA by a radical mechanism that does not involve NO or peroxynitrite.

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