Protoporphyrin IX-induced phototoxicity: Mechanisms and therapeutics

Zahir Hussain, Qian Qi, Junjie Zhu, Karl E. Anderson, Xiaochao Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is an intermediate in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Abnormal accumulation of PPIX due to certain pathological conditions such as erythropoietic protoporphyria and X-linked protoporphyria causes painful phototoxic reactions of the skin, which can significantly impact daily life. Endothelial cells in the skin have been proposed as the primary target for PPIX-induced phototoxicity through light-triggered generation of reactive oxygen species. Current approaches for the management of PPIX-induced phototoxicity include opaque clothing, sunscreens, phototherapy, blood therapy, antioxidants, bone marrow transplantation, and drugs that increase skin pigmentation. In this review, we discuss the present understanding of PPIX-induced phototoxicity including PPIX production and disposition, conditions that lead to PPIX accumulation, symptoms and individual differences, mechanisms, and therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108487
JournalPharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume248
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Erythropoietic protoporphyria
  • Heme
  • Phototoxicity
  • Protoporphyrin IX
  • X-linked protoporphyria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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