Psychometric properties of the young children's participation and environment measure

Mary A. Khetani, James E. Graham, Patricia L. Davies, Mary C. Law, Rune J. Simeonsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

83 Scopus citations


Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected online and by telephone. Participants Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to survey caregivers of children (N=395, comprising children with [n=93] and without [n=302] developmental disabilities and delays) between the ages of 0 and 5 years (mean age ± SD, 35.33±20.29mo) and residing in North America. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The YC-PEM includes 3 participation scales and 1 environment scale. Each scale is assessed across 3 settings: home, daycare/preschool, and community. Data were analyzed to derive estimates of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Results Internal consistency ranged from.68 to.96 and.92 to.96 for the participation and environment scales, respectively. Test-retest reliability (2-4wk) ranged from.31 to.93 for participation scales and from.91 to.94 for the environment scale. One of 3 participation scales and the environment scale demonstrated significant group differences by disability status across all 3 settings, and all 4 scales discriminated between disability groups for the daycare/preschool setting. The participation scales exhibited small to moderate positive associations with functional performance scores. Conclusions Results lend initial support for the use of the YC-PEM in research to assess the participation of young children with disabilities and delays in terms of (1) home, daycare/preschool, and community participation patterns; (2) perceived environmental supports and barriers to participation; and (3) activity-specific parent strategies to promote participation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-316
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • Child
  • Environment
  • Infant
  • Rehabilitation
  • Social participation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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