Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a polyhormone secretory protein that plays fundamental roles in the development and function of various tissues. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is an important tumor suppressor that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased PTHrP expression has been implicated in TGF-β-induced growth inhibition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, whether PTHrP is involved in TGF-β-induced apoptosis remains unknown. Using Hep3B and HuH-7, two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, the current study examined the hypothesis that TGF-β-induced apoptosis is mediated by the induction of PTHrP expression. We found that (1) TGF-β induces PTHrP mRNA expression, protein expression and secretion in a time-dependent fashion; (2) knockdown of PTHrP gene expression or neutralization of secreted PTHrP isoforms blocks TGF-β-induced apoptosis; and (3) TGF-β-induced PTHrP expression is Smad3-dependent. Thus, we have identified PTHrP as a novel mediator for TGF-β-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells. Our findings provide further insights into the mechanisms through which TGF-β conveys tumor suppression activity.
- Parathyroid hormone-related protein
- Real-time quantitative PCR
- Small interfering RNA
- Transforming growth factor-β
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience