Racial differences in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in the women's health initiative

Michael S. Simon, Cynthia A. Thomson, Erin Pettijohn, Ikuko Kato, Rebecca J. Rodabough, Dorothy Lane, F. Allan Hubbell, Mary Jo O'Sullivan, Lucille Adams-Campbell, Charles P. Mouton, Judith Abrams, Rowan T. Chlebowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are higher in African-Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. The women's health initiative (WHI) study sample was used to determine whether differences in CRC risk factors explain racial/ethnic differences in incidence and mortality. Methods: The WHI is a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women recruited from 40 centers. Baseline questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic and health status information. All CRC diagnoses were centrally adjudicated. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for invasive CRC by race/ethnicity. Results: The study sample included 131,481 (83.7%) White, 14,323 (9.1%) African-American, 6,362 (4.1%) Hispanic, 694 (0.4%) Native American and 4,148 (2.6%) Asian/Pacific Islanders. After a mean follow-up of 10.8 years (SD 2.9), CRC incidence was the highest in African-Americans (annualized rate = 0.14%), followed by Whites and Native Americans (0.12% each), Asian/Pacific Islanders (0.10%), and Hispanics (0.08%). After adjustment for age and trial assignment, Hispanics had a lower risk compared with Whites, HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54-0.97) (P = 0.03), and African-Americans had a marginally greater risk, HR 1.16 (95% CI: 0.99-1.34), P = 0.06. Multivariable adjustment attenuated the difference in incidence between African-Americans and Whites (HR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.82-1.20), while strengthening the lower HR for Hispanics (HR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48-0.97). Conclusions: African-American/White differences in CRC risk are likely due to sociodemographic/cultural factors other than race. Impact: A number of modifiable exposures could be a focus for reducing CRC risk in African-Americans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1368-1378
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology


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