Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography: Technique and clinical applications

M. Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This article will provide an overview of real time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3D) in evaluation of patients with heart disease. We will briefly describe the technique and our experience in its clinical applications in patients with coronary artery disease, left ventricular apical thrombi, mitral stenosis and its role in guiding intracardiac catheter placement. Our extensive experience with application of RT-3D during dobutamine stress and during supine bicycle exercise indicates the technique is sensitive in detection of ischemia. RT-3D has been valuable in clearly identifying left ventricular apical thrombi in patients in whom 2-dimensional (2D) echo cannot firmly establish their presence or absence. We have utilized RT-3D in guiding myocardial biopsy in heart transplant patients and in precisely measuring mitral valve area before and after balloon valvuloplasty. RT-3D technique continues to evolve and should play an important role in assessment of patients with heart disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)635-640
Number of pages6
JournalMinerva Cardioangiologica
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Balloon dilatation
  • Coronary disease
  • Echocardiography, three dimensional
  • Heart ventricle
  • Mitral valve stenosis
  • Myocardium, pathology
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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