Recent Advances in the Lipid Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of mRNA Vaccines

K. Swetha, Niranjan G. Kotla, Lakshmi Tunki, Arya Jayaraj, Suresh K. Bhargava, Haitao Hu, Srinivasa Reddy Bonam, Rajendra Kurapati

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have recently emerged as one of the most advanced technologies for the highly efficient in vivo delivery of exogenous mRNA, particularly for COVID-19 vaccine delivery. LNPs comprise four different lipids: ionizable lipids, helper or neutral lipids, cholesterol, and lipids attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG). In this review, we present recent the advances and insights for the design of LNPs, as well as their composition and properties, with a subsequent discussion on the development of COVID-19 vaccines. In particular, as ionizable lipids are the most critical drivers for complexing the mRNA and in vivo delivery, the role of ionizable lipids in mRNA vaccines is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the use of LNPs as effective delivery vehicles for vaccination, genome editing, and protein replacement therapy is explained. Finally, expert opinion on LNPs for mRNA vaccines is discussed, which may address future challenges in developing mRNA vaccines using highly efficient LNPs based on a novel set of ionizable lipids. Developing highly efficient mRNA delivery systems for vaccines with improved safety against some severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants remains difficult.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number658
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • COVID-19
  • lipid nanoparticles
  • mRNA
  • vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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