Recent insights into Clostridium difficile pathogenesis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in the healthcare setting. An emerging consensus suggests that CDI is caused by pathogenic toxin production, gut microbial dysbiosis and altered host inflammatory responses. The aim of this review is to summarize and highlight recent advances focused on CDI pathogenic mechanisms. Recent Findings: Potential paradigm shifts relating to the mechanisms of toxin action and inhibition have recently been reported, with new insights into spore germination and surface protein function also gaining traction. Multiomic analysis of microbiome dysbiosis has identified important CDI-associated microbial community shifts that may form the basis of future targeted bacteriotherapy, and functional metabolite biomarkers that require further characterization. Classical innate and adaptive immunity against CDI is rapidly being delineated, with novel innate S-nitrosylation signals also being identified. Summary: Studies in patients and animal disease models are shedding new light on the critical roles of the microbiota, metabolome and host responses in primary and recurrent CDI. An improved understanding of the CDI disease pathogenesis will provide the basis for developing new therapies for treating disease and preventing recurrence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)447-453
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Volume26
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013

Fingerprint

Clostridium Infections
Clostridium difficile
Dysbiosis
Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis
Microbiota
Animal Disease Models
Metabolome
Traction
Adaptive Immunity
Germination
Spores
Innate Immunity
Diarrhea
Membrane Proteins
Biomarkers
Delivery of Health Care
Recurrence

Keywords

  • Clostridium difficile
  • host response
  • microbiota
  • pathogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Recent insights into Clostridium difficile pathogenesis. / Peniche-Trujillo, Alex-Giovanny; Savidge, Tor C.; Dann-Grice, Sara.

In: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 26, No. 5, 10.2013, p. 447-453.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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