Recombinant Apyrase (AZD3366) Against Myocardial Reperfusion Injury

Yochai Birnbaum, Regina Ye, Huan Chen, Leif Carlsson, Carl Whatling, Ola Fjellström, Erik Ryberg, Yumei Ye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: Recombinant apyrase (AZD3366) increases adenosine production and ticagrelor inhibits adenosine reuptake. We investigated whether intravenous AZD3366 before reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size (IS) and whether AZD3366 and ticagrelor have additive effects. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats underwent 30 min ischemia. At 25 min of ischemia, animals received intravenous AZD3366 or vehicle. Additional animals received intravenous CGS15943 (an adenosine receptor blocker) or intraperitoneal ticagrelor. At 24 h reperfusion, IS was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Other rats were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 1 h or 24 h reperfusion. Myocardial samples were assessed for adenosine levels, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting. Results: AZD3366 and ticagrelor reduced IS. The protective effect was blocked by CGS15943. The effect of AZD3366 + ticagrelor was significantly greater than AZD3366. One hour after infarction, myocardial adenosine levels significantly increased with AZD3366, but not with ticagrelor. In contrast, 24 h after infarction, adenosine levels were equally increased by AZD3366 and ticagrelor, and levels were higher in the AZD3366 + ticagrelor group. One hour after reperfusion, AZD3366 and ticagrelor equally attenuated the increase in interleukin-15 (an early inflammatory marker after ischemic cell death) levels, and their combined effects were additive. AZD3366, but not ticagrelor, significantly attenuated the increase in RIP1, RIP3, and P-MLKL (markers of necroptosis) 1 h after reperfusion. AZD3366, but not ticagrelor, significantly attenuated the increase in IL-6 and GSDMD-N (markers of pyroptosis) 1 h after reperfusion. At 24 h of reperfusion, both agents equally attenuated the increase in these markers, and their effects were additive. Conclusions: AZD3366 attenuated inflammation, necrosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis and limited IS. The effects of AZD3366 and ticagrelor were additive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-646
Number of pages22
JournalCardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Adenosine
  • Animal model
  • Apyrase
  • Infarct size
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Necroptosis
  • Necrosis
  • Pyroptosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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