Hemorrhagic transformation is an aggravating event that occurs in 15 to 43% of patients suffering from ischemic stroke. This phenomenon due to blood-brain barrier breakdown appears to be mediated in part by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) among which MMP-2 and MMP-9 could be particularly involved. Recent experimental studies demonstrated that post-ischemic MMP-9 overexpression is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). In this context, our study aimed to evaluate the effect of PJ34 (N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-2-(N,N-dimethylamino)acetamide), a potent PARP inhibitor, on MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and on hemorrhagic transformations in a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mice. PJ34 (6.25-12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the time of ischemia onset and 4 h later. Hemorrhagic transformations, divided into microscopic and macroscopic hemorrhages, were counted 48 h after ischemia on 12 coronal brain slices. Microscopic and macroscopic hemorrhages were respectively reduced by 38% and 69% with 6.25 mg/kg PJ34. The anti-hemorrhagic effect of PJ34 was associated with a 57% decrease in MMP-9 overexpression assessed by gelatin zymography. No increase in MMP-2 activity was observed after ischemia in our model. The vascular protection achieved by PJ34 was associated with a reduction in the motor deficit (P < 0.05) and in infarct volume (- 31%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that PJ34 reduces hemorrhagic transformations after cerebral ischemia. Thus this PARP inhibitor exhibits both anti-hemorrhagic and neuroprotective effects that may be of valuable interest for the treatment of stroke.
- Cerebral hemorrhage
- Matrix metalloproteinase
- PARP (poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase)
ASJC Scopus subject areas