Refractory barriers in the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to infection with Leishmania panamensis

L. L. Walters, K. P. Irons, G. B. Modi, R. B. Tesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The life cycle of Leishmania panamensis in Phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. The insects were fed a suspension of L. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite establishment in the gut lumen. In most flies, parasites were unable to escape from the closed peritrophic sac, which was either excreted or retained intact in the midgut. After five days, only 31% of the flies were infected; attached parasites colonized the pylorus-ileum and/or colon regions of the hindgut. Anterior migration into the cardia region of the midgut occurred in < 1% of infected flies; no parasites colonized the foregut. In the bloodmeal and residual bloodmeal, five morphologic forms developed from ingested amastigotes: stumpy, spatulate, elongate, short nectomonad promastigotes, and paramastigotes. Abnormal retention of amastigotes in macrophages and delayed development of promastigote stages was observed. The primary form attached in the hindgut was a pear-shaped haptomonad promastigote. Differentiation of L. panamensis in Ph. papatasi appeared to be similar to that described in natural hosts, except that metacyclic infective forms were not observed, and some forms developed in unusual locations. Phlebotomus papatasi was a partly refractory biological host for L. panamensis. The peritrophic membrane adversely affected the infection rate; rare anterior migration and a lack of metacyclic promastigotes may preclude transmission by bite.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)211-228
Number of pages18
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume46
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Phlebotomus
Psychodidae
Leishmania
Diptera
Parasites
Infection
Macrophages
Pyrus
Cardia
Membranes
Pylorus
Bites and Stings
Life Cycle Stages
Ileum
Insects
Suspensions
Electron Microscopy
Colon
Erythrocytes
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Refractory barriers in the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera : Psychodidae) to infection with Leishmania panamensis. / Walters, L. L.; Irons, K. P.; Modi, G. B.; Tesh, R. B.

In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 46, No. 2, 1992, p. 211-228.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{968d09ff6ce6435787a9dcb1009e637a,
title = "Refractory barriers in the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to infection with Leishmania panamensis",
abstract = "The life cycle of Leishmania panamensis in Phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. The insects were fed a suspension of L. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite establishment in the gut lumen. In most flies, parasites were unable to escape from the closed peritrophic sac, which was either excreted or retained intact in the midgut. After five days, only 31{\%} of the flies were infected; attached parasites colonized the pylorus-ileum and/or colon regions of the hindgut. Anterior migration into the cardia region of the midgut occurred in < 1{\%} of infected flies; no parasites colonized the foregut. In the bloodmeal and residual bloodmeal, five morphologic forms developed from ingested amastigotes: stumpy, spatulate, elongate, short nectomonad promastigotes, and paramastigotes. Abnormal retention of amastigotes in macrophages and delayed development of promastigote stages was observed. The primary form attached in the hindgut was a pear-shaped haptomonad promastigote. Differentiation of L. panamensis in Ph. papatasi appeared to be similar to that described in natural hosts, except that metacyclic infective forms were not observed, and some forms developed in unusual locations. Phlebotomus papatasi was a partly refractory biological host for L. panamensis. The peritrophic membrane adversely affected the infection rate; rare anterior migration and a lack of metacyclic promastigotes may preclude transmission by bite.",
author = "Walters, {L. L.} and Irons, {K. P.} and Modi, {G. B.} and Tesh, {R. B.}",
year = "1992",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "46",
pages = "211--228",
journal = "American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
issn = "0002-9637",
publisher = "American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Refractory barriers in the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera

T2 - Psychodidae) to infection with Leishmania panamensis

AU - Walters, L. L.

AU - Irons, K. P.

AU - Modi, G. B.

AU - Tesh, R. B.

PY - 1992

Y1 - 1992

N2 - The life cycle of Leishmania panamensis in Phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. The insects were fed a suspension of L. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite establishment in the gut lumen. In most flies, parasites were unable to escape from the closed peritrophic sac, which was either excreted or retained intact in the midgut. After five days, only 31% of the flies were infected; attached parasites colonized the pylorus-ileum and/or colon regions of the hindgut. Anterior migration into the cardia region of the midgut occurred in < 1% of infected flies; no parasites colonized the foregut. In the bloodmeal and residual bloodmeal, five morphologic forms developed from ingested amastigotes: stumpy, spatulate, elongate, short nectomonad promastigotes, and paramastigotes. Abnormal retention of amastigotes in macrophages and delayed development of promastigote stages was observed. The primary form attached in the hindgut was a pear-shaped haptomonad promastigote. Differentiation of L. panamensis in Ph. papatasi appeared to be similar to that described in natural hosts, except that metacyclic infective forms were not observed, and some forms developed in unusual locations. Phlebotomus papatasi was a partly refractory biological host for L. panamensis. The peritrophic membrane adversely affected the infection rate; rare anterior migration and a lack of metacyclic promastigotes may preclude transmission by bite.

AB - The life cycle of Leishmania panamensis in Phlebotomus papatasi was studied to characterize barriers limiting parasite colonization, differentiation, migration, and attachment in an unnatural sand fly host. The insects were fed a suspension of L. panamensis-infected macrophages and human erythrocytes, and were examined up to 16 days post-infection by light and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of 401 flies showed the peritrophic membrane to be the first important barrier to parasite establishment in the gut lumen. In most flies, parasites were unable to escape from the closed peritrophic sac, which was either excreted or retained intact in the midgut. After five days, only 31% of the flies were infected; attached parasites colonized the pylorus-ileum and/or colon regions of the hindgut. Anterior migration into the cardia region of the midgut occurred in < 1% of infected flies; no parasites colonized the foregut. In the bloodmeal and residual bloodmeal, five morphologic forms developed from ingested amastigotes: stumpy, spatulate, elongate, short nectomonad promastigotes, and paramastigotes. Abnormal retention of amastigotes in macrophages and delayed development of promastigote stages was observed. The primary form attached in the hindgut was a pear-shaped haptomonad promastigote. Differentiation of L. panamensis in Ph. papatasi appeared to be similar to that described in natural hosts, except that metacyclic infective forms were not observed, and some forms developed in unusual locations. Phlebotomus papatasi was a partly refractory biological host for L. panamensis. The peritrophic membrane adversely affected the infection rate; rare anterior migration and a lack of metacyclic promastigotes may preclude transmission by bite.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026521804&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026521804&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 1539756

AN - SCOPUS:0026521804

VL - 46

SP - 211

EP - 228

JO - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

JF - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

SN - 0002-9637

IS - 2

ER -