RANTES, a CC chemokine, plays an important role in the inflammatory response associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the mechanism by which H. pylori induces RANTES expression in the gastric mucosa is unknown. We cocultured gastric epithelial cells with wild-type H. pylori, isogenic oipA mutants, cag pathogenicity island. (PAI) mutants, or double knockout mutants. Reverse transcriptase PCR showed that RANTES mRNA was induced by H. pylori and that the expression was both OipA and cag PAI dependent. Luciferase reporter gene assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that maximal H. pylori-induced RANTES gene transcription required the presence of the interferon-stimulated responsive element (ISRE), the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), nuclear factor-interleukin 6 (NF-IL-6), and two NF-κB sites. OipA- and cag PAI-dependent pathways included NF-κB→NF- κB/NF-IL-6/ISRE pathways, and cag PAI-dependent pathways additionally included Jun N-terminal kinase→CRE/NF-κB pathways. The OipA-dependent pathways additionally included p38→CRE/ISRE pathways. We confirmed the in vitro effects in vivo by examining RANTES mRNA levels in biopsy specimens from human gastric antral mucosa. RANTES mRNA levels in the antral mucosa were significantly higher for patients infected with cag PAI/OipA-positive H. pylori than for those infected with cag PAI/OipA-negative H. pylori or uninfected patients. The mucosal inflammatory response to H. pylori infection involves different signaling pathways for activation of the RANTES promoter, with both OipA and the cag PAI being required for full activation of the RANTES promoter.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases