Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or human orthopneumovirus, is a negative-sense RNA virus that is the causative agent of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and is associated with exacerbations of adult lung disease. The mechanisms how severe and/or repetitive virus infections cause declines in pulmonary capacity are not fully understood. We have recently discovered that viral replication triggers epithelial plasticity and metabolic reprogramming involving the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). In this study, we examine the relationship between viral induced innate inflammation and the activation of hexosamine biosynthesis in small airway epithelial cells. We observe that RSV induces ~2-fold accumulation of intracellular UDP-GlcNAc, the end-product of the HBP and the obligate substrate of N glycosylation. Using two different silencing approaches, we observe that RSV replication activates the HBP pathway in a manner dependent on the RELA proto-oncogene (65 kDa subunit). To better understand the effect of RSV on the cellular N glycoproteome, and its RELA dependence, we conduct affinity enriched LC-MS profiling in wild-type and RELA-silenced cells. We find that RSV induces the accumulation of 171 N glycosylated peptides in a RELA-dependent manner; these proteins are functionally enriched in integrins and basal lamina formation. To elaborate this mechanism of HBP expression, we demonstrate that RSV infection coordinately induces the HBP pathway enzymes in a manner requiring RELA; these genes include Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT)-1/2, Glucosamine-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase (GNPNAT)-1, phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-3 and UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Pyrophosphorylase (UAP)-1. Using small-molecule inhibitor(s) of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 (OGG1), we observe that OGG1 is also required for the expression of HBP pathway. In proximity ligation assays, RSV induces the formation of a nuclear and mitochondrial RELA∙OGG1 complex. In co-immunoprecipitaton (IP) experiments, we discover that RSV induces Ser 536-phosphorylated RELA to complex with OGG1. Chromatin IP experiments demonstrate a major role of OGG1 in supporting the recruitment of RELA and phosphorylated RNA Pol II to the HBP pathway genes. We conclude that the RELA∙OGG1 complex is an epigenetic regulator mediating metabolic reprogramming and N glycoprotein modifications of integrins in response to RSV. These findings have implications for viral-induced adaptive epithelial responses.
- 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1
- DNA-damage repair
- hexosamine biosynthetic pathway
- innate immunity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)