Respiratory syncytial virus induces relA release from cytoplasmic 100-kDa NF-κB2 complexes via a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene-I·NF- κB-inducing kinase signaling pathway

Ping Liu, Kui Li, Roberto Garofalo, Allan R. Brasier

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Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. RSV infects airway epithelial cells, where it activates inflammatory genes via the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is controlled by two pathways, a canonical pathway that releases sequestered RelA complexes from the IκBα inhibitor, and a second, the noncanonical pathway, that releases RelB from the 100-kDa NF-κB2 complex. Recently we found that the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a major intracellular RSV sensor upstream of the canonical pathway. In this study, we surprisingly found that RIG-I silencing also inhibited p100 processing to 52-kDa NF-κB2 ("p52"), suggesting that RIG-I was functionally upstream of the noncanonical regulatory kinase complex composed of NIK·IKKα subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments not only demonstrated that NIK associated with RIG-I and its downstream adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), but also showed the association between IKKα and MAVS. To further understand the role of the NIK·IKKα pathway, we compared RSV-induced NF-κB activation using wild type, Ikkγ-/-, Nik-/-, and Ikkα-/--deficient MEF cells. Interestingly, we found that in canonical pathway-defective Ikkγ-/- cells, RSV induced RelA by liberation from p100 complexes. RSV was still able to activate IP10, Rantes, and Groβ gene expression in Ikkγ-/- cells, and this induction was inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated RelA knockdown but not RelB silencing. These data suggest that part of the RelA activation in response to RSV infection was induced by a "cross-talk" pathway involving the noncanonical NIK·IKKα complex downstream of RIG-I·MAVS. This pathway may be a potential target for RSV treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23169-23178
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume283
Issue number34
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 22 2008

Fingerprint

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Tretinoin
Viruses
Phosphotransferases
Genes
Antiviral Agents
Chemical activation
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Gene Silencing
Immunoprecipitation
Respiratory Tract Infections
Small Interfering RNA
Gene expression
Epithelial Cells
Gene Expression
Association reactions
Sensors
Processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

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title = "Respiratory syncytial virus induces relA release from cytoplasmic 100-kDa NF-κB2 complexes via a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene-I·NF- κB-inducing kinase signaling pathway",
abstract = "Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. RSV infects airway epithelial cells, where it activates inflammatory genes via the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is controlled by two pathways, a canonical pathway that releases sequestered RelA complexes from the IκBα inhibitor, and a second, the noncanonical pathway, that releases RelB from the 100-kDa NF-κB2 complex. Recently we found that the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a major intracellular RSV sensor upstream of the canonical pathway. In this study, we surprisingly found that RIG-I silencing also inhibited p100 processing to 52-kDa NF-κB2 ({"}p52{"}), suggesting that RIG-I was functionally upstream of the noncanonical regulatory kinase complex composed of NIK·IKKα subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments not only demonstrated that NIK associated with RIG-I and its downstream adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), but also showed the association between IKKα and MAVS. To further understand the role of the NIK·IKKα pathway, we compared RSV-induced NF-κB activation using wild type, Ikkγ-/-, Nik-/-, and Ikkα-/--deficient MEF cells. Interestingly, we found that in canonical pathway-defective Ikkγ-/- cells, RSV induced RelA by liberation from p100 complexes. RSV was still able to activate IP10, Rantes, and Groβ gene expression in Ikkγ-/- cells, and this induction was inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated RelA knockdown but not RelB silencing. These data suggest that part of the RelA activation in response to RSV infection was induced by a {"}cross-talk{"} pathway involving the noncanonical NIK·IKKα complex downstream of RIG-I·MAVS. This pathway may be a potential target for RSV treatment.",
author = "Ping Liu and Kui Li and Roberto Garofalo and Brasier, {Allan R.}",
year = "2008",
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doi = "10.1074/jbc.M802729200",
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journal = "Journal of Biological Chemistry",
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T1 - Respiratory syncytial virus induces relA release from cytoplasmic 100-kDa NF-κB2 complexes via a novel retinoic acid-inducible gene-I·NF- κB-inducing kinase signaling pathway

AU - Liu, Ping

AU - Li, Kui

AU - Garofalo, Roberto

AU - Brasier, Allan R.

PY - 2008/8/22

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N2 - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. RSV infects airway epithelial cells, where it activates inflammatory genes via the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is controlled by two pathways, a canonical pathway that releases sequestered RelA complexes from the IκBα inhibitor, and a second, the noncanonical pathway, that releases RelB from the 100-kDa NF-κB2 complex. Recently we found that the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a major intracellular RSV sensor upstream of the canonical pathway. In this study, we surprisingly found that RIG-I silencing also inhibited p100 processing to 52-kDa NF-κB2 ("p52"), suggesting that RIG-I was functionally upstream of the noncanonical regulatory kinase complex composed of NIK·IKKα subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments not only demonstrated that NIK associated with RIG-I and its downstream adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), but also showed the association between IKKα and MAVS. To further understand the role of the NIK·IKKα pathway, we compared RSV-induced NF-κB activation using wild type, Ikkγ-/-, Nik-/-, and Ikkα-/--deficient MEF cells. Interestingly, we found that in canonical pathway-defective Ikkγ-/- cells, RSV induced RelA by liberation from p100 complexes. RSV was still able to activate IP10, Rantes, and Groβ gene expression in Ikkγ-/- cells, and this induction was inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated RelA knockdown but not RelB silencing. These data suggest that part of the RelA activation in response to RSV infection was induced by a "cross-talk" pathway involving the noncanonical NIK·IKKα complex downstream of RIG-I·MAVS. This pathway may be a potential target for RSV treatment.

AB - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a primary cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children worldwide. RSV infects airway epithelial cells, where it activates inflammatory genes via the NF-κB pathway. NF-κB is controlled by two pathways, a canonical pathway that releases sequestered RelA complexes from the IκBα inhibitor, and a second, the noncanonical pathway, that releases RelB from the 100-kDa NF-κB2 complex. Recently we found that the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a major intracellular RSV sensor upstream of the canonical pathway. In this study, we surprisingly found that RIG-I silencing also inhibited p100 processing to 52-kDa NF-κB2 ("p52"), suggesting that RIG-I was functionally upstream of the noncanonical regulatory kinase complex composed of NIK·IKKα subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments not only demonstrated that NIK associated with RIG-I and its downstream adaptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS), but also showed the association between IKKα and MAVS. To further understand the role of the NIK·IKKα pathway, we compared RSV-induced NF-κB activation using wild type, Ikkγ-/-, Nik-/-, and Ikkα-/--deficient MEF cells. Interestingly, we found that in canonical pathway-defective Ikkγ-/- cells, RSV induced RelA by liberation from p100 complexes. RSV was still able to activate IP10, Rantes, and Groβ gene expression in Ikkγ-/- cells, and this induction was inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated RelA knockdown but not RelB silencing. These data suggest that part of the RelA activation in response to RSV infection was induced by a "cross-talk" pathway involving the noncanonical NIK·IKKα complex downstream of RIG-I·MAVS. This pathway may be a potential target for RSV treatment.

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