Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia

Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics

Tariq A. Madani, Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou, Mohammad H. Al-Jeffri, Amin A. Mishkhas, Abdullah M. Al-Rabeah, Adel M. Turkistani, Mohammad O. Al-Sayed, Abdullah A. Abodahish, Ali S. Khan, Thomas Ksiazek, Osama Shobokshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

277 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This cohort descriptive study summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic that occurred in Saudi Arabia from 26 August 2000 through 22 September 2001. A total of 886 cases were reported. Of 834 reported cases for which laboratory results were available, 81.9% were laboratory confirmed, of which 51.1% were positive for only RVF immunoglobulin M, 35.7% were positive for only RVF antigen, and 13.2% were positive for both. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 46.9 ± 19.4 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 4:1. Clinical and laboratory features included fever (92.6% of patients), nausea (59.4%), vomiting (52.6%), abdominal pain (38.0%), diarrhea (22.1%), jaundice (18.1%), neurological manifestations (17.1%), hemorrhagic manifestations (7.1%), vision loss or scotomas (1.5%), elevated liver enzyme levels (98%), elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (60.2%), thrombocytopenia (38.4%), leukopenia (39.7%), renal impairment or failure (27.8%), elevated creatine kinase level (27.3%), and severe anemia (15.1%). The mortality rate was 13.9%. Bleeding, neurological manifestations, and jaundice were independently associated with a high mortality rate. Patients with leukopenia had significantly a lower mortality rate than did those with a normal or high leukocyte count (2.3% vs. 27.9%; odds ratio, 0.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.63).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1084-1092
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume37
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2003
Externally publishedYes

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Rift Valley Fever
Saudi Arabia
Leukopenia
Neurologic Manifestations
Jaundice
Mortality
Scotoma
Creatine Kinase
Leukocyte Count
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Thrombocytopenia
Nausea
Abdominal Pain
Vomiting
Immunoglobulin M
Anemia
Diarrhea
Cohort Studies
Fever
Odds Ratio

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

Madani, T. A., Al-Mazrou, Y. Y., Al-Jeffri, M. H., Mishkhas, A. A., Al-Rabeah, A. M., Turkistani, A. M., ... Shobokshi, O. (2003). Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(8), 1084-1092. https://doi.org/10.1086/378747

Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia : Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics. / Madani, Tariq A.; Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H.; Mishkhas, Amin A.; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah M.; Turkistani, Adel M.; Al-Sayed, Mohammad O.; Abodahish, Abdullah A.; Khan, Ali S.; Ksiazek, Thomas; Shobokshi, Osama.

In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 37, No. 8, 15.10.2003, p. 1084-1092.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Madani, TA, Al-Mazrou, YY, Al-Jeffri, MH, Mishkhas, AA, Al-Rabeah, AM, Turkistani, AM, Al-Sayed, MO, Abodahish, AA, Khan, AS, Ksiazek, T & Shobokshi, O 2003, 'Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics', Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1084-1092. https://doi.org/10.1086/378747
Madani TA, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri MH, Mishkhas AA, Al-Rabeah AM, Turkistani AM et al. Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia: Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2003 Oct 15;37(8):1084-1092. https://doi.org/10.1086/378747
Madani, Tariq A. ; Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y. ; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H. ; Mishkhas, Amin A. ; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah M. ; Turkistani, Adel M. ; Al-Sayed, Mohammad O. ; Abodahish, Abdullah A. ; Khan, Ali S. ; Ksiazek, Thomas ; Shobokshi, Osama. / Rift Valley Fever Epidemic in Saudi Arabia : Epidemiological, Clinical, and Laboratory Characteristics. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2003 ; Vol. 37, No. 8. pp. 1084-1092.
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abstract = "This cohort descriptive study summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic that occurred in Saudi Arabia from 26 August 2000 through 22 September 2001. A total of 886 cases were reported. Of 834 reported cases for which laboratory results were available, 81.9{\%} were laboratory confirmed, of which 51.1{\%} were positive for only RVF immunoglobulin M, 35.7{\%} were positive for only RVF antigen, and 13.2{\%} were positive for both. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 46.9 ± 19.4 years, and the ratio of male to female patients was 4:1. Clinical and laboratory features included fever (92.6{\%} of patients), nausea (59.4{\%}), vomiting (52.6{\%}), abdominal pain (38.0{\%}), diarrhea (22.1{\%}), jaundice (18.1{\%}), neurological manifestations (17.1{\%}), hemorrhagic manifestations (7.1{\%}), vision loss or scotomas (1.5{\%}), elevated liver enzyme levels (98{\%}), elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (60.2{\%}), thrombocytopenia (38.4{\%}), leukopenia (39.7{\%}), renal impairment or failure (27.8{\%}), elevated creatine kinase level (27.3{\%}), and severe anemia (15.1{\%}). The mortality rate was 13.9{\%}. Bleeding, neurological manifestations, and jaundice were independently associated with a high mortality rate. Patients with leukopenia had significantly a lower mortality rate than did those with a normal or high leukocyte count (2.3{\%} vs. 27.9{\%}; odds ratio, 0.09; 95{\%} confidence interval, 0.01-0.63).",
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AU - Mishkhas, Amin A.

AU - Al-Rabeah, Abdullah M.

AU - Turkistani, Adel M.

AU - Al-Sayed, Mohammad O.

AU - Abodahish, Abdullah A.

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