Risk factors for Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh

Joel M. Montgomery, Mohamed J. Hossain, E. Gurley, D. S. Carroll, A. Croisier, E. Bertherat, N. Asgari, P. Formenty, N. Keeler, J. Comer, M. R. Bell, K. Akram, A. R. Molla, K. Zaman, Mohamed R. Islam, K. Wagoner, J. N. Mills, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, R. F. Breiman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations


Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans. During January 2004, twelve patients with NiV encephalitis (NiVE) were identified in west-central Bangladesh. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with NiV infection. NiVE patients from the outbreak were enrolled in a matched case-control study. Exact odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using a matched analysis. Climbing trees (83% of cases vs. 51% of controls, OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.25-∞) and contact with another NiVE patient (67% of cases vs. 9% of controls, OR 21.4, 95% CI 2.78-966.1) were associated with infection. We did not identify an increased risk for NiV infection among persons who had contact with a potential intermediate host. Although we cannot rule out person-to-person transmission, case-patients were likely infected from contact with fruit bats or their secretions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1526-1532
Number of pages7
JournalEmerging infectious diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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