Robotic Belsey Mark IV Repair of the Paraesophageal Hernia

Joseph A. Reza, Charles Bakhos, Stacey Su, Roman Petrov, Abbas E. Abbas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Surgical repair of paraesophageal hernias in patients with hostile abdomen is challenging. Despite its utility as an open procedure, the adoption of the minimally invasive Belsey Mark IV procedure has been limited because of the complexity of using traditional video-assisted thoracoscopic instrumentation. The robotic platform offers additional degrees of freedom, which enables minimally invasive transthoracic approach despite challenging anatomy. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique of robotic approach for the Belsey Mark IV operation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of the robotic Belsey Mark IV procedure completed at a single institution between June 2018 and November 2021. Data were collected from a review of the medical records, including operative reports, anesthesia records, imaging, and clinical notes. The operative technique is described in the present article. There were 4 men and 1 woman. The average age of the patients was 64.4 ± 13.6 years, with an average body mass index of 24.5 kg/m2. Three patients had undergone previous transabdominal hiatal hernia repair, and 2 of them had 2 prior repairs. One patient underwent simultaneous pulmonary left lower lobectomy for cancer with the Belsey Mark IV procedure. Results: The average operative time was 209 ± 95 min (110 to 360 min). The average postoperative length of stay was 4.2 days, and 2 patients experienced complications including bleeding and persistent air leak (after lobectomy). The average blood loss was 67 ± 25 mL. Conclusions: The robotic platform enables a transthoracic minimally invasive approach to the Belsey Mark IV operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)84-89
Number of pages6
JournalInnovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Belsey Mark IV
  • hiatal hernia
  • paraesophageal hernia
  • robotic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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