Role of peroxynitrite and activation of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase in the vascular failure induced by zymosan-activated plasma

Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Basilia Zingarelli, Michael O'Connor, Andrew L. Salzman, Achille P. Caputi, Csaba Szabo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1. Zymosan is a wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Injection of zymosan into experimental animals is known to produce an intense inflammatory response. Recent studies demonstrated that the zymosan-induced inflammatory response in vivo can be ameliorated by inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. The cytotoxic effects of NO are, in part, mediated by the oxidant preoxynitrite and subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the cellular mechanisms of vascular failure elicited by zymosan-activated plasma and the contribution of peroxynitrite production and activation of PARS to the changes. 2. Incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) induced the production of nitrite, the breakdown product of NO, due to the expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) over 6-24 h. In addition, ZAP triggered the production of peroxynitrite in these cells, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123 and by nitrotyrosine Western blotting. 3. Incubation of the smooth muscle cells with ZAP induced DNA single strand breakage and PARS activation. These effects were reduced by inhibition of NOS with N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA, 3 mM), and by glutathione (3 mM), a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) inhibited the ZAP-induced activation of PARS. 4. Incubation of thoracic aortae with ZAP in vitro caused a reduction of the contractions of the blood vessels to noradrenaline (vascular hyporeactivity) and elicited a reduced responsiveness to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (endothelial dysfunction). 5. Preincubation of the thoracic aortae with L-NMA (1 mM), glutathione (3 mM) or by the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) prevented the development of vascular hyporeactivity in response to ZAP. Moreover, glutathione and 3-aminobenzamide treatment protected against the ZAP-induced development of endothelial dysfunction. The PARS-related loss of the vascular contractility was evident at 30 min after incubation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded vessels and also manifested at 6 h after incubation with ZAP in endothelium-denuded rings. The acute response is probably related, therefore, to peroxynitrite formation (involving the endothelial NO synthase), whereas the delayed response may be related to the expression of iNOS in the smooth muscle. 6. The data obtained suggest that zymosan-activated plasma causes vascular dysfunction by inducing the simultaneous formation of superoxide and NO. These radicals combine to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn causes DNA injury and PARS activation. The protective effect of 3-aminobenzamide demonstrates that PARS activation contributes both to the development of vascular hyporeactivity and endothelial dysfunction during the vascular failure induced by ZAP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-503
Number of pages11
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Volume122
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

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Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
Peroxynitrous Acid
Zymosan
Ligases
Blood Vessels
Nitric Oxide
Endothelium
Glutathione
Thoracic Aorta
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Protein Isoforms
Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors
Enzyme Activation
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Nitrites
Fluorescent Dyes
Oxidants
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Superoxides

Keywords

  • Endothelium
  • Inflammation
  • Nitric oxide
  • Shock
  • Superoxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Role of peroxynitrite and activation of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase in the vascular failure induced by zymosan-activated plasma. / Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Zingarelli, Basilia; O'Connor, Michael; Salzman, Andrew L.; Caputi, Achille P.; Szabo, Csaba.

In: British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 122, No. 3, 1997, p. 493-503.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cuzzocrea, Salvatore ; Zingarelli, Basilia ; O'Connor, Michael ; Salzman, Andrew L. ; Caputi, Achille P. ; Szabo, Csaba. / Role of peroxynitrite and activation of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase in the vascular failure induced by zymosan-activated plasma. In: British Journal of Pharmacology. 1997 ; Vol. 122, No. 3. pp. 493-503.
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T1 - Role of peroxynitrite and activation of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase in the vascular failure induced by zymosan-activated plasma

AU - Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

AU - Zingarelli, Basilia

AU - O'Connor, Michael

AU - Salzman, Andrew L.

AU - Caputi, Achille P.

AU - Szabo, Csaba

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - 1. Zymosan is a wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Injection of zymosan into experimental animals is known to produce an intense inflammatory response. Recent studies demonstrated that the zymosan-induced inflammatory response in vivo can be ameliorated by inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. The cytotoxic effects of NO are, in part, mediated by the oxidant preoxynitrite and subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the cellular mechanisms of vascular failure elicited by zymosan-activated plasma and the contribution of peroxynitrite production and activation of PARS to the changes. 2. Incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) induced the production of nitrite, the breakdown product of NO, due to the expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) over 6-24 h. In addition, ZAP triggered the production of peroxynitrite in these cells, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123 and by nitrotyrosine Western blotting. 3. Incubation of the smooth muscle cells with ZAP induced DNA single strand breakage and PARS activation. These effects were reduced by inhibition of NOS with N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA, 3 mM), and by glutathione (3 mM), a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) inhibited the ZAP-induced activation of PARS. 4. Incubation of thoracic aortae with ZAP in vitro caused a reduction of the contractions of the blood vessels to noradrenaline (vascular hyporeactivity) and elicited a reduced responsiveness to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (endothelial dysfunction). 5. Preincubation of the thoracic aortae with L-NMA (1 mM), glutathione (3 mM) or by the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) prevented the development of vascular hyporeactivity in response to ZAP. Moreover, glutathione and 3-aminobenzamide treatment protected against the ZAP-induced development of endothelial dysfunction. The PARS-related loss of the vascular contractility was evident at 30 min after incubation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded vessels and also manifested at 6 h after incubation with ZAP in endothelium-denuded rings. The acute response is probably related, therefore, to peroxynitrite formation (involving the endothelial NO synthase), whereas the delayed response may be related to the expression of iNOS in the smooth muscle. 6. The data obtained suggest that zymosan-activated plasma causes vascular dysfunction by inducing the simultaneous formation of superoxide and NO. These radicals combine to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn causes DNA injury and PARS activation. The protective effect of 3-aminobenzamide demonstrates that PARS activation contributes both to the development of vascular hyporeactivity and endothelial dysfunction during the vascular failure induced by ZAP.

AB - 1. Zymosan is a wall component of the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Injection of zymosan into experimental animals is known to produce an intense inflammatory response. Recent studies demonstrated that the zymosan-induced inflammatory response in vivo can be ameliorated by inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. The cytotoxic effects of NO are, in part, mediated by the oxidant preoxynitrite and subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the cellular mechanisms of vascular failure elicited by zymosan-activated plasma and the contribution of peroxynitrite production and activation of PARS to the changes. 2. Incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle cells with zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) induced the production of nitrite, the breakdown product of NO, due to the expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) over 6-24 h. In addition, ZAP triggered the production of peroxynitrite in these cells, as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dye dihydrorhodamine 123 and by nitrotyrosine Western blotting. 3. Incubation of the smooth muscle cells with ZAP induced DNA single strand breakage and PARS activation. These effects were reduced by inhibition of NOS with N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA, 3 mM), and by glutathione (3 mM), a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) inhibited the ZAP-induced activation of PARS. 4. Incubation of thoracic aortae with ZAP in vitro caused a reduction of the contractions of the blood vessels to noradrenaline (vascular hyporeactivity) and elicited a reduced responsiveness to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (endothelial dysfunction). 5. Preincubation of the thoracic aortae with L-NMA (1 mM), glutathione (3 mM) or by the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (1 mM) prevented the development of vascular hyporeactivity in response to ZAP. Moreover, glutathione and 3-aminobenzamide treatment protected against the ZAP-induced development of endothelial dysfunction. The PARS-related loss of the vascular contractility was evident at 30 min after incubation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded vessels and also manifested at 6 h after incubation with ZAP in endothelium-denuded rings. The acute response is probably related, therefore, to peroxynitrite formation (involving the endothelial NO synthase), whereas the delayed response may be related to the expression of iNOS in the smooth muscle. 6. The data obtained suggest that zymosan-activated plasma causes vascular dysfunction by inducing the simultaneous formation of superoxide and NO. These radicals combine to form peroxynitrite, which, in turn causes DNA injury and PARS activation. The protective effect of 3-aminobenzamide demonstrates that PARS activation contributes both to the development of vascular hyporeactivity and endothelial dysfunction during the vascular failure induced by ZAP.

KW - Endothelium

KW - Inflammation

KW - Nitric oxide

KW - Shock

KW - Superoxide

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