Role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications: Endothelial dysfunction, as a common underlying theme

Pál Pacher, Csaba Szabo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

117 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by mitochondrial electron-transport chain triggers several pathways of injury involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications [protein kinase C (PKC), hexosamine and polyol pathway fluxes, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation] by inhibiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress activates the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP). PARP activation, on the one hand, depletes its substrate, NAD+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport, and ATP formation. On the other hand, it inhibits GAPDH by poly(ADP-ribosy)lation. These processes result in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications. Accordingly, hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC isoforms, hexosaminase pathway flux, and AGE formation is prevented by blocking PARP activity. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction in preclinical models. PARP activation is present in microvasculature of human diabetic subjects. The oxidative/nitrosative stress-PARP pathway leads to diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction, which may be an important underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of other diabetic complications (cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy). This review focuses on the role of PARP in diabetic complications and the unique therapeutic potential of PARP inhibition in the prevention or reversal of diabetic complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1568-1580
Number of pages13
JournalAntioxidants and Redox Signaling
Volume7
Issue number11-12
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes

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Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
Diabetes Complications
Chemical activation
Advanced Glycosylation End Products
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
Electron Transport
Hyperglycemia
Protein Kinase C
Oxidative Stress
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies
Fluxes
Hexosamines
Oxidative stress
Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1
Blood vessels
Glycolysis
Medical problems
Microvessels
Superoxides
NAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by mitochondrial electron-transport chain triggers several pathways of injury involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications [protein kinase C (PKC), hexosamine and polyol pathway fluxes, advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation] by inhibiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress activates the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP). PARP activation, on the one hand, depletes its substrate, NAD+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport, and ATP formation. On the other hand, it inhibits GAPDH by poly(ADP-ribosy)lation. These processes result in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications. Accordingly, hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC isoforms, hexosaminase pathway flux, and AGE formation is prevented by blocking PARP activity. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction in preclinical models. PARP activation is present in microvasculature of human diabetic subjects. The oxidative/nitrosative stress-PARP pathway leads to diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction, which may be an important underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of other diabetic complications (cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy). This review focuses on the role of PARP in diabetic complications and the unique therapeutic potential of PARP inhibition in the prevention or reversal of diabetic complications.",
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