Role of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase in inflammation and ischaemia- reperfusion

Csaba Szabó, Valina L. Dawson

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

    635 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress can trigger DNA strand breakage, which then activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS). This enzyme has also been termed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or poly(ADP- ribose) transferase (pADPRT). Rapid activation of the enzyme depletes the intracellular concentration of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, thus slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and subsequently ATP formation. This process can result in cell dysfunction and cell death. In this article, Csaba Szabo and Valina Dawson overview the impact of pharmacological inhibition or genetic inactivation of PARS on the course of oxidant-induced cell death in vitro, and in inflammation and reperfusion injury in vivo. A major trigger for DNA damage in pathophysiological conditions is peroxynitrite, a cytotoxic oxidant formed by the reaction between the free radicals nitric oxide and superoxide. The pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase is a novel approach for the experimental therapy of various forms of inflammation and shock, stroke, myocardial and intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion, and diabetes mellitus.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)287-298
    Number of pages12
    JournalTrends in Pharmacological Sciences
    Volume19
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Jul 1 1998

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Toxicology
    • Pharmacology

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