Role of RNA-binding proteins during the late stages of Flavivirus replication cycle

Mayra Diosa-Toro, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Shelton S. Bradrick, Mariano A. Garcia Blanco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Infection with these viruses manifest with symptoms ranging from febrile illness to life- threatening hypotensive shock and encephalitis. Therefore, flaviviruses pose a great risk to public health. Currently, preventive measures are falling short to control epidemics and there are no antivirals against any Flavivirus. Flaviviruses carry a single stranded positive-sense RNA genome that plays multiple roles in infected cells: it is translated into viral proteins, used as template for genome replication, it is the precursor of the subgenomic flaviviral RNA and it is assembled into new virions. Furthermore, viral RNA genomes are also packaged into extracellular vesicles, e.g. exosomes, which represent an alternate mode of virus dissemination. Because RNA molecules are at the center of Flavivirus replication cycle, viral and host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical determinants of infection. Numerous studies have revealed the function of RBPs during Flavivirus infection, particularly at the level of RNA translation and replication. These proteins, however, are also critical participants at the late stages of the replication cycle. Here we revise the function of host RBPs and the viral proteins capsid, NS2A and NS3, during the packaging of viral RNA and the assembly of new virus particles. Furthermore, we go through the evidence pointing towards the importance of host RBPs in mediating cellular RNA export with the idea that the biogenesis of exosomes harboring Flavivirus RNA would follow an analogous pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number60
JournalVirology journal
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 25 2020

Keywords

  • Exosomes
  • Flavivirus infection
  • RNA export
  • RNA-binding proteins
  • Viral assembly

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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