Inflammation is a host defence activated by exogenous (e.g. pathogen-derived, pollutants) or endogenous (e.g. reactive oxygen species-ROS) danger signals. Mostly, endogenous molecules (or their derivatives) have well-defined intracellular function but become danger signal when released or exposed following stress or injury. In this review, we discuss the potential role of ROS in chronic evolution of inflammatory cardiovascular diseases, using our experiences working on chagasic cardiomyopathy as a focus-point.